Selecting Variable Area Flow Meters for Process Flow Measurement

Variable Area Flow Meters

Many industrial processes involve the movement of fluid product components, either liquid or gaseous, through pipes. Because processing is about control, an input to the facility's management, measurement, or data logging centers will answer the query, "How much is going through that pipe?" 

In the industrial process measurement and control industry, there are several ways for quantifying flow, each with unique characteristics that may be useful under certain operating situations. All flow measuring methods are indirect because the actual measurement is of a character influenced predictably by a change in the media flow. Flow measurement is a critical component that, when paired with other fluid properties, is used to calculate the total mass of a fluid passing through the measurement site. 

The variable area meter, commonly known as a rotameter and VA meter, is a tried and true flow measuring device that operates by creating an equilibrium between an upward force created by fluid motion and a downward force, gravity. A tapering glass or metal tube encases a specifically shaped float, also known as a shaped weight, in the device. VA meters must be positioned vertically, with the media flowing upward from the bottom, so that the gravity force required for functioning is correctly aligned with the flow direction. As fluid flows upward via the precisely tapered tube, drag is created on the float enclosed within the tube, pulling it upward. As the float rises, the open space between the float and the tube wall expands, causing the fluid velocity and drag force to decrease. The flow velocity within the tube will cause the weight to climb for any given flow volume until the drag force generated by the flow reaches equilibrium with the countervailing power of gravity on the float. The tube and float are well designed, allowing for an immediate indication of flow volume.

Variable area flowmeters have the following operating characteristics: 

  • There is no need for external power or fuel for functioning. 
  • Vertical installation is required, with flow arriving at the bottom. 
  • Meters are calibrated to a given chemical and temperature. 
  • The operation is stable and has a modest pressure drop. 
  • For operation, constant gravity is required. 
  • Flow rate can be read locally using a meter or a scale inscribed on the tube. 
  • The visibility of the float through the medium is required for unit flow readings using glass tubes. 
  • For industrial flow metering equipment, accuracy is relatively low. 
  • Inexpensive upkeep, simple construction, and low comparative cost.

Brooks Instrument, a world-renowned maker of flow, pressure, and level measurement equipment, created a brief paper highlighting the parameters to consider when specifying a VA meter and how each aspect influences the unit's performance. The description is realistic and straightforward to grasp. It is suggested reading for all process stakeholders who want to improve their flow measuring skills.

For more information about variable area flow meters contact Miller Energy. Call 800-631-5454 or visit https://millerenergy.com.

New Product Alert: The United Electric Controls Excela™ Electronic Switch

United Electric's Excela™ is the first switch of its type. Excela™ provides plant operators with an affordable way to upgrade to electronic performance. It has only two wires and is simple to place into the existing mechanical switch infrastructure. This unique, high-quality electronic pressure and temperature switch provide everything operators require for improved performance at an affordable price.

There are benefits and drawbacks to using advanced transmitters and old electromechanical switches at a facility. In terms of maintenance, an operator may spend at least ten times trying to maintain a switch over a transmitter. A transmitter, on the other hand, can be expensive and excessive for a modest application. There is a market void for economical, easy-to-install, drop-in-upgrade instrumentation for a facility's old mechanical switch infrastructure. To address the maintenance and upgrade cost concerns, the Excela™ was designed from the ground up to combine the benefits of the electromechanical switch (e.g., simplicity) and the transmitter (e.g., precision) at an inexpensive price point.

The Excela™ electronic switch is for plant upgrades by replacing mechanical switches with cutting-edge digital switch technology. It makes use of the existing mechanical switch wire as well as the attached discrete input power supply. In most cases, Excela™ is a direct drop-in replacement for existing mechanical pressure, differential pressure, and temperature instrumentation, making upgrading instrumentation within a plant cost-effective and straightforward. Typical uses are monitoring pressure and temperature for alarm and emergency shutdown in lubricating oil, boiler, furnace feed pumps, cooling, chiller water injection pumps, compressors, and many others.

For more information about the Excela™ electronic switch contact Miller Energy. Call 800-631-5454 or visit https://millerenergy.com.

Process Refractometers for Water Treatment Chemical Concentration Monitoring

Process Refractometers for Water Treatment


INTRODUCTION


Pure water treatment removes undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids, and gases from raw water. Water purification aims to produce water for a specific purpose, such as human consumption and medical or industrial use.


Polyaluminium coagulants are increasing use in potable water treatment plants, particularly for soft, colored surface waters. Polyaluminium chloride (PACl) is gradually replacing Alum (aluminum sulfate), a commonly used coagulant in water treatment plants. Alum coagulates at a limited pH range (between 5.5 and 6.5) and often requires alkali to the raw water to achieve the optimum coagulation pH. Furthermore, the alum floc produced is particularly fragile, which is vital if a coagulant is required to maximize color removal in a microfiltration-based water treatment process.


K-Patents Teflon Body Refractometer PR-23-M from Miller Energy, Inc.


APPLICATION


Water treatment by chemical precipitation is a complex process. It starts with adding flocculants, specifically, Polyaluminium Chloride (PACl) and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH). PACl is a synthetic polymer dissolved in water. It precipitates in big volumetric flocs, which absorb suspended pollutants in the raw water. The turbidity of the raw water defines Polyaluminium Chloride quantity. PACl concentration must be higher than 10 % To keep the flocculation process smooth. Polyaluminium Chloride is stable in the storage tank; however, it tends to crystallize after some time. Vaisala K-PATENTS® refractometer monitors the concentration of PACl to inform about the need for tank or pipe cleaning, thus preventing blockage caused by the PACl crystals.


NaOH regulates pH level, increases alkalinity, and neutralizes acids in the water. In alkaline water, the coagulation and flocculation processes work more effectively. Moreover, sufficient alkalinity prevents dissolving the lead from pipes and pipe fittings and reduces the corrosive effect of the water to iron pipes.


Further, particles suspended in water start to precipitate and agglomerate to form larger particles, known as flocs. The flocs are then settled at the bottom, forming sludge, and then removed from the process. After separating most of the floc, the remaining suspended particles and unsettled floc get filtered to remove water.


In the filtration phase, the water goes through the layers of anthracite, sand, and gravel. As a result, organic compounds contributing to taste and odor get removed. Other remaining particles get trapped by adhering to the sand and gravel particles.


After harmful micro-organisms get removed through filtering, it is necessary to add disinfecting chemicals to the water to inactivate any remaining pathogens and potentially harmful micro-organisms. One of the disinfecting chemicals used is Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl). When dissolved in water, this chemical releases chlorine, which is an efficient and safe disinfectant if added in a sufficient amount. Apart from sodium hypochlorite, liquid chlorine and chlorine dioxide are also choices as disinfectants.


Fluoride may also be added to the water to reduce tooth decay and prevent chronic diseases. However, fluoride in the water must not exceed recommended levels. Excessive levels of fluoride can be toxic or cause undesirable cosmetic effects such as staining of teeth.


Sodium Hypochlorite is unstable and quickly decomposes. The stability of NaOCl solution is dependent on the following factors:


  • Hypochlorite concentration
  • The temperature of the solution
  • PH value of the solution
  • The concentration of the impurities during catalyzing decomposition
  • Exposure to light


With the process refractometer, it is possible to monitor NaOCl concentration and control the disinfection conditions.


The water purification disinfection stage happens in the disinfectant basin. Then, corrosion control assures the high quality of the purified water. Finally, the pure water gets stored for further consumption.


INSTRUMENTATION AND INSTALLATION


Vaisala K-PATENTS® Teflon Body Refractometer PR-23-M provides in-line measurements of Polyaluminium Chloride and Sodium Hydroxide at the initial stage of purification, ensuring the efficient flocculation of undesired particles. In addition, through the measurement of Sodium Hypochlorite and Fluoride at the water disinfection stage, high-quality purified water at the outlet is assured.


Refractometer installations happen in three different points in a by-pass loop between each chemical tank pump outlet and the treatment point. The refractometer allows monitoring the chemicals concentration at the exit from the storage tank to the pipe treatment point.


Typical measurement ranges are:

  • PACl is ca. 10-11 %
  • NaOH is ca. 40-45 %
  • NaOCl is ca. 8-12 %

Miller Energy, Inc.
https://millerenergy.com
800-631-5454

How Does a 250:1 Turndown Improve Your Bioprocess Performance?

The Brooks Instrument SLA Series Biotech Mass Flow Controller (MFC) with a 250:1 turndown delivers critical benefits to your bioprocess. This biotech-focused MFC provides the added flexibility of a higher controllable range than a traditional MFC, enabling easy scaling and reducing the total cost of ownership by requiring fewer gas lines and mass flow controllers in the system configuration. Performance of the bioprocess also improves by reducing DO noise while fewer overall components simplify system maintenance. 

For more information about Brooks Instrument products, contact Miller Energy by calling 800-631-5454, or visit https://millerenergy.com.

How Proper Level Instrumentation Can Alleviate Foam Headaches

Proper Level Instrumentation for Foam

Foam is at times present in liquid tanks used in the chemical, manufacturing, food and beverage, life sciences, and other process industries. Because of foam's fluid nature, there is no such thing as a "one-size-fits-all" level measurement solution. It's essential to understand the foam's characteristics and understand what form of measurement is needed. The foam may develop in a tank for several reasons, such as introducing air or gas into the liquid or the activity of agitators/mixing blades. Regardless of the source, caution is required when selecting a level measurement technology to avoid potentially costly errors. 

Magnetrol, a world-leading manufacturer of level instrumentation, authored a white paper that aims to go through the challenges that foam presents and overcome them by recommending proper instrumentation.

GET THE WHITE PAPER HERE

In New York Metro and Northern NJ
Phone: 800-631-5454

In Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware:
Phone: 610-363-6200

https://millerenergy.com

Cashco Sanitary / Hygienic Regulators and Control Valves

Cashco manufactures a broad line of throttling rotary and linear control valves, pressure reducing regulators, and back pressure regulators used in pharmaceutical, biopharma, life science, food & beverage, cosmetic, and semiconductor industries. 

Cashco sanitary/hygienic products include: 

Sanitary Reducing Regulators 

Model C-CS, Model C-PRV, CA1/SA1, CA4/SA4, Model 5381, Model P1, Model P2 Model P3, Model P4, Model P5, Model PA1/PL1 

Sanitary Back Pressure Regulators 

Model C-BPV, Model 3171, Model CA5/SA5, Model BA1/BL1, Model B2 

Sanitary Control Valves 

Model SCV-30, Model SCV-S 

Controllers 

Model 764P-37 

Sanitary Blanketing Valve 

Model 1088, Model 1088-BP, Model 1100 

For more information about Cashco Sanitary / Hygienic Products, contact Miller Energy. Call them at 800-631-5454 or visit their website at https://millerenergy.com​.

United Electric Controls 12 Series Pressure and Temperature Switches

United Electric Controls 12 Series Pressure and Temperature Switches

SIL 2 Certified, vibration-resistant, 316 stainless steel pressure, differential pressure and temperature switches.

The United Electric Controls 12 Series hazardous location switches are suitable for challenging applications where space is limited. Snap-action Belleville spring assemblies provide vibration resistance and extended switching life. The 316 stainless steel enclosure and the hermetically sealed switch provide robust environmental protection. Approved for use in hazardous environments, the 12 Series outperforms the competition in applications ranging from refineries to chemical plants, rotating machinery, and more.


In New York Metro and Northern NJ
Phone: 800-631-5454

In Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware:
Phone: 610-363-6200

https://millerenergy.com

The Thermo Scientific™ AquaPro™ Multi-Input Process Analyzer

Thermo Scientific™ AquaPro™

Thermo Scientific™ AquaPro™ provides accurate, user-friendly in-line monitoring of process applications — from power generation to municipal water and wastewater.

The AquaPro™ is an on-line liquid analytical measurement platform that supports up to four sensors in an outdoor rated enclosure. The enclosure can be mounted in a ½ DIN panel, U-bolted to a pipe or mounted on a wall. The large color graphics display makes it easy to view measurements over a wide range of environmental conditions. There is a USB data port that is accessible from the front panel to transfer data, auto-configure the system setup or to upgrade the operating software with new features.

The Thermo Scientific™ AquaPro™ Multi-Input Intelligent Process Analyzer provides accurate, user-friendly in-line monitoring of process applications — from power generation to municipal water and wastewater.

The AquaPro™ Multi-Input Intelligent Process Analyzer is far more than a 4-wire multi-input meter. It is a sophisticated and highly flexible analysis platform for a wide range of process applications.

To download the AquaPro™ brochure, click this link. For more immediate information, contact Miller Energy:

In New York Metro and Northern NJ
Phone: 800-631-5454

In Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware:
Phone: 610-363-6200

In Western Pennsylvania:
Phone: 412-257-0200

In Ohio:
Phone: 440-735-0100

The Tank Mount Series Weighing Equipment by BLH Nobel

Tank Mount Series Weighing Equipment by BLH Nobel

BLH Nobel has launched its new Tank Mount Series of weighing equipment for applications for process weighing. The new series comprises three fully standardized weight modules with off-the-shelf availability in capacities of up to 200 tons and numerous appropriate junction boxes and instruments. It is an integrated solution for accurate and repeatable weighing of materials for various applications, such as large silos, vessels, small storage containers, and clean-in-place batching processes. 

Known for its customizable, high-precision, smart weighing solutions, BLH Nobel is a well-established pioneer in process weighing. The Tank Mount Series offers a cost-effective solution for end-users as well as system integrators and OEMs, consisting of two low and one high-capacity weight modules with mV/V output: 

  • With capacities of up to 5 ton/ton, the TankMount Metric Weight Module and its imperial equivalent EconoMount Weight Module are both well suited for general industrial applications requiring retrofitting existing structures or turning hoppers into scales. Weight modules are rated IP 67 or better as standard, with optional ATEX, FM, NEMA4, OIML, and NTEP, Class III, and IIIL approved versions available. 
  • With the KDH5 Weight Module, the Tank Mount Series covers an increased capacity of up to 200 tons at an accuracy level of 0.075 percent of the Rated Performance. Its lightweight and durable mechanical architecture feature an integrated tilting guard for fast installation. The Weight Module is suitable for heavy-silo weighing applications or weight bridges with ATEX, IECEx or FM certified versions at no additional cost. Higher capacities and EN 1090-compliant versions are also available. 

BLH Nobel provides a range of appropriate junction boxes and equipment to offer full weighing solutions in a single-stop store. For example, the WIN5 weight indicator is well suited for simple applications that can benefit from its stainless steel enclosure, the high-contrast 6-digit LED display, and the working pushbuttons supporting tare weight zero settings for empty vessels. The G5 DIN Rail Mount meets advanced weighing and control equipment specifications. It is available as a DIN rail edition with an integrated monitor and functional keypad, simple navigation, and direct control at the production facility. The G5 instrument family's modular hardware supports a wide range of communication options via Ethernet, RS485, USB, Fieldbus, and analog output-with maximum versatility.

In New York Metro and Northern NJ
Phone: 800-631-5454

In Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware:
Phone: 610-363-6200

https://millerenergy.com

GT1600 Industrial Glass Tube Variable Area Flowmeter (Rotameter) for Liquids & Gases

As one of the pioneering manufacturers in variable area (VA) flow meter (rotameter) technology, Brooks Instrument has created a diverse and proven portfolio of gas flow meters, installed and used across virtually every industry.

The NEW Brooks Instrument GT1600 Series industrial design is ideal for the toughest applications. 

GT1600 Features

  • Configurable to retro-fit GT10xx, GT130x and Full-View
  • 360 degrees rotatable viewing angle
  • High quality materials for safety, in- and outdoor durability
  • 316 stainless steel frame
  • Polycarbonate safety shield
  • 316/316L dual certified stainless steel process fittings
  • Alarms for high- and low flow (optional for all flow ranges, either at time of
  • order,or as add-on in the field)
  • Flanged or threaded connections, available horizontal and vertical
  • Panel- and wall mount options
  • Easy in-situ maintenance: Clean or replace tube and float without removal from
  • the process piping
  • Adjust the scale to compensate for process variation
  • Optional integral needle valve

For more information about the Brooks Instrument GT1600 contact Miller Energy, Inc. Call them at 800-631-5454 or visit their website at https://millerenergy.com.