Showing posts with label Magentrol. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Magentrol. Show all posts

Pulse Burst Radar Level Transmitters

Pulse Burst Radar Level Transmitters

Pulse Burst Radar sends short bursts of energy to the surface of a liquid. The time it takes for a signal to be reflected off the liquid surface is measured by ultra-high-speed timing circuitry. 

Filtering out false reflections and other background noises is accomplished through sophisticated signal processing. The precise level is then calculated by taking tank height and additional configuration information into account. Because the circuitry is highly energy-efficient, no duty cycling is required, as with other radar devices. This enables the device to track rapid level changes of up to 4.5 m/minute (180"/min). 

Magnetrol uses Pulse Burst Radar for Radar level measurement rather than frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW), which is today's more common operational technology. Pulse Burst Radar operates in the time domain and does not necessitate the complex and costly processing required for FMCW. 

Pulse Burst Radar is more efficient at sorting through extraneous echoes and selecting the one reflected by the actual level because echoes are discrete and separated in time. Pulse Burst Radar also has excellent averaging characteristics, vital in applications where the return signal is affected by the factors described in "Don't Forget the 3 D's of Radar" below. 

Unlike actual pulse devices, which send a single sharp (fast rise-time) waveform of wide-band energy, Pulse Burst Radar sends out short bursts of 6 GHz or 26 GHz energy and measures the transit time of the signal reflected from the liquid surface. The following equation is used to calculate distance:

Distance = C x Transit Time/2, (where C = Speed of Light)

The level value is then calculated by taking tank height and other configuration information into account. The sensor reference point – the bottom of an NPT thread, top of a BSP thread, or face of a flange – is the exact reference point for distance and level calculations. 

Remember the 3 D's of Radar 

Three fundamental conditions influence radar applications: 

  • The process medium's dielectric; 
  • The application's distance, or measuring range; and 
  • A wide range of disturbances can weaken or distort the radar signal. 

Low dielectric media can weaken radar's return signal, reducing the effective measurement range of a device. Pulse Burst Radar provides accurate measurements even in low dielectrics. However, when the dielectric is extremely low, as with liquid gas, fuels, and solvents, or when boiling and/or flashing can occur, Guided Wave Radar (GWR) may be the better choice in radar technology. 

The distance, or measurement range, of Pulse Burst Radar, is determined by the antenna used, the dielectric constant of the medium, and the presence of signal interference. Turbulence, foam, false targets (interior tank obstructions causing false echoes), multiple reflections (reflections off the tank roof), and a frequent level change rate can all weaken, scatter, or multiply radar signals. Excessively high or extremely low liquid levels can also be problematic. 

The Processing of Signals 

Because radar exhibits interference effects similar to those seen in light, the signal processing function is critical. The quality of a device's signal processing is what distinguishes today's cutting-edge radar transmitters from the rest. 

Pulse Burst Radar extracts accurate levels from false targets and background noise through its sophisticated signal processing capabilities. Because pulse burst radar circuitry is highly energy-efficient, no duty cycling is required to achieve effective measurement. As a result, Pulse Burst Radar can track high rates of change that would be impossible to track with other loop-powered radar transmitters. Although Pulse Burst Radar has a robust false target recognition and rejection routine, proper installation significantly minimizes false target reflections. 

Antennas 

The radar signal is transmitted and received by the antenna on the transmitter. Each antenna's maximum measuring range is primarily determined by dielectric constants and the degree of turbulence. Horn antennas can measure dielectric media as low as 1.4, whereas rod antennas have a minimum dielectric of 1.7. 

Benefits 

Pulse Burst Radar measures a wide range of media accurately and reliably in a wide range of process conditions, from calm product surfaces and water-based media to turbulent surfaces and aggressive hydrocarbon media. As a non-contact device, Pulse Burst Radar is immune to the complications that can occur when a probe comes into contact with the process media, such as coating from high viscosity media or corrosive attack from aggressive chemicals. Given the cost of extended probe lengths, the greater the measuring range, the more radar proves to be the cost-effective solution. Temperatures, pressures, the presence of vapors, and air movement within a vessel's free space have little effect on the radar. Specific gravity, conductivity, and dielectric constant changes do not affect measurement accuracy. The lack of moving parts in a 100% electronic instrument translates into low maintenance costs, and, as a two-wire, loop-powered device, power requirements and installation are greatly simplified.

Miller Energy, Inc.
https://millerenergy.com

In New York Metro and Northern NJ
Phone: 800-631-5454

In Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware:
Phone: 610-363-6200

In Western Pennsylvania:
Phone: 412-257-0200

In Ohio:
Phone: 440-735-0100

How Proper Level Instrumentation Can Alleviate Foam Headaches

Proper Level Instrumentation for Foam

Foam is at times present in liquid tanks used in the chemical, manufacturing, food and beverage, life sciences, and other process industries. Because of foam's fluid nature, there is no such thing as a "one-size-fits-all" level measurement solution. It's essential to understand the foam's characteristics and understand what form of measurement is needed. The foam may develop in a tank for several reasons, such as introducing air or gas into the liquid or the activity of agitators/mixing blades. Regardless of the source, caution is required when selecting a level measurement technology to avoid potentially costly errors. 

Magnetrol, a world-leading manufacturer of level instrumentation, authored a white paper that aims to go through the challenges that foam presents and overcome them by recommending proper instrumentation.

GET THE WHITE PAPER HERE

In New York Metro and Northern NJ
Phone: 800-631-5454

In Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware:
Phone: 610-363-6200

https://millerenergy.com