Hazardous Areas: Division and Zone Classification System

Hazardous area
Hazards areas are associated with flammable
vapors or gases, ignitable fibers, and combustible dusts.
Hazardous areas refer to locations with a possible risk of explosion or fire due to dangerous atmosphere. The hazards can be associated with flammable vapors or gases, ignitable fibers, and combustible dusts.

Different hazardous area classifications exist in the North America and Europe. Generally, the National Electric Code (NEC) classifications govern hazardous areas in the US. While in Europe, hazardous area classification has been specified by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

Below is a description of the Division and Zone classification system.



CLASS
NATURE OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL
CLASS I
Hazardous area due the presence of flammable vapors or gases in sufficient quantities to produce ignitable mixtures and cause an explosion.
Examples include natural gas and liquified petroleum.
CLASS II
Hazardous area due the presence of conductive or combustible dusts in sufficient quantities to produce ignitable mixtures and cause an explosion.
Examples include aluminum and magnesium powders.
CLASS III
Hazardous area due the presence of flammable fibers or other flying debris that collect around lighting fixtures, machinery, and other areas in sufficient quantities to produce ignitable mixtures and cause an explosion.
Examples include sawdust and flyings



Division groups hazardous areas based on the chances of an explosion due to the presence of flammable materials in the area.

DIVISION
LIKELIHOOD OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL
DIVISION 1
Areas where there is a high chance of an explosion due to hazardous material that is present periodically, intermittently, or continuously under normal operation.
DIVISION 2
Areas where there is a low chance of an explosion under normal operation.


Group categorizes areas based on the type of flammable or ignitable materials in the environment. As per NEC guidelines, Groups A to D classify gasses while Groups E to G classify dust and flying debris.
GROUP
TYPE OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN THE AREA
GROUP A
Acetylene.
GROUP B
Area contains flammable gas, liquid, or liquid produced vapor with any of the following characteristics:
  • Minimum Ignition Current (MIC) value equal to or less than 0.40
  • Maximum Experimental Safe Gap (MESG) value equal to or less than 0.45 mm
  • Combustible gas with more than 30 percent volume
Examples include hydrogen, ethylene oxide, acrolein, propylene oxide.

GROUP C
Area contains flammable gas, liquid, or liquid produced vapor with any of the following characteristics:
  • Minimum Ignition Current (MIC) value between 0.40 and 0.80
  • Maximum Experimental Safe Gap (MESG) value greater than 0.75 mm
Examples include carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide, ether, cyclopropane, morphline, acetaldehyde, isoprene, and ethylene.

GROUP D
Area contains flammable gas, liquid, or liquid produced vapor with any of the following characteristics:
  • Minimum Ignition Current (MIC) value greater than 0.80
  • Maximum Experimental Safe Gap (MESG) value greater than 0.75 mm
Examples include ammonia, gasoline, butane, benzene, hexane, ethanol, methane, methanol, natural gas, propane, naphtha, and vinyl chloride.

GROUP E
Area contains metal dusts such as magnesium, aluminum, chromium, bronze, titanium, zinc, and other combustible dusts whose abrasiveness, size, and conductivity present a hazard.

GROUP F
Area contains carbonaceous dusts such as charcoal, coal black, carbon black, coke dusts and others that present an explosion hazard.
GROUP G
Area contains combustible dusts not classified in Groups E and F.
Examples include starch, grain, flour, wood, plastic, sugar, and chemicals.


NOTE: This post serves only as a guide to acquaint the reader with hazardous area classifications in the USA. It is imperative to discuss your instrumentation, valve, or process equipment requirement with a qualified applications expert prior to installing any electrical device inside of any hazardous area.


Understanding How Magnetic Flowmeters Work and the Difference between AC and DC Excitation


The electromagnetic flowmeter, commonly known as the "magmeter", gets its name from the magnetic field generated within the float tube that produces a signal proportional to flow. This principle employs Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction. Magnetic flowmeters are built so the direction of the magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow and the line between the electrodes is also perpendicular to the flow. As a conductive liquid flows through the flowtube, an electro-motive force is generated. The electrodes detect the electro-motive force. The electro-motive force is proportional to the flow velocity, flux density, and the meter inner diameter. The flux density of the magnetic field and the meters inner diameter are constant values, therefore the magnetic flow meter can calculate the flow velocity and volumetric flow from the electro-motive force.

The basic components of the magnetic flow meter body are:

  1. A lined flowtube (typically Teflon)
  2. Excitation coils
  3. Two electrodes mounted opposite of each other within the flowtube.

Current is applied to the coils in the magmeter to generate a magnetic field within the flow tube. As a conductive fluid flows through the meter, an electro-motive force is generated. This force is detected by the electrodes and the resulting value is converted to flowrate.

For more information on magnetic flowmeters, contact Miller Energy, Inc. by calling 800-631-5454 or by visiting https://millerenergy.com.

6 Benefits of Using Wireless Networking Systems in Industrial Applications

Wireless Networking Systems in Industrial ApplicationsWireless technologies offer great value over wired solutions. A reduction in cost is just one of the many benefits of switching to the wireless networking system. There are many benefits, including enhanced management of legacy systems that were previously not possible with a wired networking connection.

Here is an overview of some of the value-added benefits of adopting wireless networking in industrial plants.
  1. Reduced Installation Costs - Savings in installation costs is the key benefit of a wireless networking system. The cost of installing a wireless solution is significantly lower as compared to its wired counterpart. Installing a wireless network requires less planning. Extensive surveys are not required to route the wires to control rooms. This reduced installation cost is the main reason industrial setups should consider going wireless instead of having a wired networking system. 
  2. Improved Information Accuracy - Adopting wireless networking also results in improved accuracy of information. The wireless system is not prone to interferences. As a result, the system ensures consistent and timely transfer of information from one node to another. 
  3. Enhanced Flexibility - Enhanced flexibility is another reason for deploying wireless networking solutions in an industrial setting. Additional points can be awarded easily in an incremental manner. The wireless system can also integrate with legacy systems without any issues. 
  4. Operational Efficiencies - Migrating to wireless networking can help in improving operational efficiencies as well. Plant managers can troubleshoot and diagnose issues more easily. The system facilitates predictive maintenance by allowing the monitoring of remote assets. 
  5. Human Safety - Another critical factor that should influence the decision to migrate to wireless networking is the human safety factor. Wireless technologies allow safer operations, reducing exposure to harmful environments. For instance, a wireless system can be used in taking a reading and adjusting valves without having to go to the problematic area to take measurements. With wireless networking systems, readings can be taken more frequently that can help in early detection and reduction of possible incidents. 
  6. Efficient Information Transfer - Another advantage is that the time required to reach a device is reduced. This results in a more efficient transfer of information between network segments that are geographically separated. The industry wireless networking standards use IP addresses to allow remote access to data from field devices. 

For more information on wireless technologies in industrial settings, contact Miller Energy by visiting https://millerenergy.com or by calling 800-631-5454.

Selecting the Right Magnetic Level Indicator

Companies in the process industry need the ability to visually monitor liquid levels in vessels (boilers, storage tanks, separators, etc.). Traditionally, armored glass sight gauges have been used. However, many companies want an alternative to sight gauges to avoid problems such as breakage, leaks, or bursting at high pressures and temperatures. In addition, the visibility of the sight glass can be poor and often affected by moisture, corrosion, or oxidation.

Many companies are increasing the use of automation and desire a 4–20 mA, HART®, FOUNDATION® fieldbus, or other output for level—which is difficult to do with a sight glass. Magnetic level indicators (MLIs) do not have the shortcomings of glass sight gauges and are suitable for a wide variety of applications.

Orion Instruments, a Magnetrol company, has authored an excellent Magnetic Level Indicator selection guide.


Miller Energy, Inc.
https://millerenergy.com
In NY/NJ 800-631-5454
In Eastern PA 888-631-5454

Understanding How Flame Arresters Work


Flame Arrester
A Flame Arrester (or arrestor) is a passive devices with no moving parts, that allows hot gas to pass through, but stops a flame in order to prevent a larger fire or explosion.  Flame Arresters uses a wound metal ribbon type element that prevents the spread of flame from the exposed side of the arrester to the protected side of the arrester. The metal element's construction provides a matrix of engineered openings that are carefully calculated and sized to quench the flame by absorbing the flame's heat. As an explosion flame travels through a narrow metal space, heat is transmitted to the walls, energy is lost and only vapor gasses are able to pass through. Flame Arresters are used in many industries chemical, petrochemical, pulp and paper, refining, pharmaceutical, mining, power generation, and wastewater treatment.

Cashco Flame Arresters are specifically engineered to match the explosive mixtures Maximum Experimental Safe Gap, in order to ensure complete extinction of the flame. At the heart of each Cashco flame arrestor lies filter discs that consists of wound, smooth and channeled strips of stainless steel set at specific maximum experimental stage gaps the smaller the gaps are which the flame travels the more heat and energy is lost therefore the filters gap width and gap length are specifically engineered to match the explosive mixture in order to ensure complete extinction of the flame. 

To learn more about Cashco flame arrestors, contact Miller Energy, Inc. by calling 908-755-6700 or by visiting https://millerenergy.com.


The Yokogawa 4-Wire SENCOM™ SMART Sensor Platform

Analyzer FLXA402
Multi-Channel/Parameter Analyzer FLXA402
The SENCOM SMART Sensor Platform has been designed with a strong focus on Yokogawa's digital SMART sensors and provides greater insight and enhanced capabilities for more reliable data across the entire product lifetime.

Yokogawa's latest SMART sensor system enhances the operation, reliability, and credibility of online process analyzers, from the engineering and purchasing to modification and optimization, by using the latest sensing technologies and asset management tools.

The SENCOM SMART Sensor Platform has been designed with a strong focus on Yokogawa's digital SMART sensors and provides greater insight and enhanced capabilities for more reliable data across the entire product lifetime.

Digital SMART SENCOM™ Adapter, SA11
Digital SMART SENCOM™ Adapter, SA11
Yokogawa's latest SMART sensor system enhances the operation, reliability, and credibility of online process analyzers, from the engineering and purchasing to modification and optimization, by using the latest sensing technologies and asset management tools.

Simple Setup and Configuration

Analog sensors equipped with a Variopin connector and Yokogawa ID chip
Analog sensors
The SENCOM 4.0 Platform is designed with an intuitive menu structure, easy-to-understand configuration, alarm settings, and clear error-fixing information to help you make credible and reliable measurements of online process control.

Environmentally Friendly Design

Conventional SMART sensors include integrated electronics on top of an analog sensor, therefore the still operating electronics must be thrown away once the sensor has reachable the end of its lifetime, adding to global waste.

The SENCOM 4.0 platform includes a reusable SMART adapter, so only an analog sensor has to be removed when it reaches the end of its lifetime, thereby reducing waste and costs.

Easy and Efficient Maintenance

Optional Digital SMART SENCOM™ Expansion Junction Box, BA11
Optional Digital SMART SENCOM™
Expansion Junction Box, BA11
The Maintenance Manager is a data management system that allows technicians to forecast maintenance and calibration frequency, estimate the service life of the sensor, and estimate the life expectancy of the sensor.

Calibration data are stored within the memory chip of the SMART sensor using the SENCOM 4.0platform. Once the sensor is connected to the analyzer, it is possible to download or upload the latest calibration data to the FLXA402 analyzer, thus avoiding the need for field calibration.

For more information, visit this page on the Miller Energy website.

Miller Energy, Inc.
800-631-5454

Level Instruments for Tank Overfill Protection

Tank overfill incidents in recent years have resulted in loss of life and billions of dollars in damages to petroleum facilities worldwide. One of the worst incidents - the overflow of a gasoline storage tank at Buncefield Oil Depot (U.K.) - has been traced to the failure of level control to maintain containment of the flammable liquid. More common are minor spills that cause significant environmental impact and result in millions of dollars in clean-up fees and environmental agency fines.

In the wake of this incident, the American Petroleum Institute’s (API) Recommended Practice (RP) 2350, the most widely accepted guideline for overfill protection of petroleum storage tanks, has been revised. The fourth edition was published in May 2012 and combined the prescriptive standards of RP 2350 with the functional safety standards of Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) as described in IEC 61511.

Vital to these new requirements is the application of level instrumentation as one part of a comprehensive Overfill Prevention Process (OPP).

Magnetrol, a world-leader in the design, manufacturer and application of level and flow instrumentation, has written an application document titled "Level Instruments for Tank Overfill Protection". Get your copy here.

The Yokogawa YS1700 Single Loop Controller Replaces Obsolete Moore/Siemens 353

Yokogawa YS1700

Now that entire Moore/Siemens 350 family is obsolete, are you considering upgrading to a DCS? 


Are you concerned about the cost and time for a new installation, application development and personnel training?

Is it possible that the new equipment vendor may again leave you stranded with their equipment as their core business is not industrial automation and control?

We have a better solution for you: Yokogawa and its YS1700 PID loop controller. Yokogawa has been providing industrial solutions, as their primary business, for over a century and their YS1700 will keep you off of eBay looking for spare 353 parts.

Interface in the Field: Achieving Reliable Interface Measurement to Optimize Process and Increase Uptime

Interface or multiphase level measurements exist throughout the Oil & Gas streams as well as Petrochemical. While level measurement technologies have come a long way in effectively measuring liquids and solids, multiphase level measurement continues to be the biggest challenge and opportunity that exists today to which there is no perfect technology.

However, experience has shown that process optimization and increased uptime can still be achieved in many separator applications through reliable, best-in-class, level technology.

The objective of this paper is to review interface challenges, the current technologies being utilized for interface, field experience in various applications to achieve process optimization and increased uptime, and the future of reliable interface measurement.

DOWNLOAD THE TECHNICAL PAPER HERE

Courtesy of Magnetrol and Miller Energy, Inc.
https://millerenergy.com
800-631-5454

Simplified Operation and Reduced Cost With Safety Transmitters and Switches

Series One Safety TransmittersProcess safety experts continually seek sustainable ways to improve the performance of safety critical loops, achieving risk reduction and safety goals in a cost-effective manner. Some view a reduction in complexity of safety related protocols to be a positive development. Traditional or historical approaches to deploying full blown safety systems were generally associated with great expense and high complexity, and still came up short on delivering the needed levels of risk reduction. Process control device and equipment manufacturers have responded with newer technologies and products that better address the safety needs of industrial processing.

In sensor subsystems, United Electric’s certified safety transmitter for pressure or temperature provides a less costly, simple path for process designers, instrument and control engineers, and maintenance personnel. The Series One Safety Transmitters combine several useful safety and monitoring functions into a single, easy to deploy device. Products are available for gauge pressure, differential pressure, and temperature applications. In addition to a 4-20 mA process variable output, the Series One has an embedded programmable high-capacity relay certified as a safety variable output. The Series One Safety Transmitter provides designers the option of a hard wired trip in less than 100 milliseconds, with a tenth of a percent repeatability, along with the monitoring functions of a traditional continuous analog output.

For equipment under control requiring protection, or processes where rapid excursions can initiate dangerous events, this unique pressure and temperature transmitter is addressing process safety time constraints, coupling issues with PLC and DCS units, and adding diversity to the safety instrumented function.

There is a whole lot more to learn about these "Safety right out of the box" industrial pressure and temperature safety transmitters. A product data sheet is provided below, but you can get the latest and most detailed product and application information from a specialist in industrial process measurement and control. Share your safety instrumentation challenges with them, combining your process expertise with their product application knowledge to develop effective solutions.

Learn more about the UEC One Series by visiting this page on the Miller Energy web site.




The Magnetrol ECHOTEL 962 Dual Ultrasonic Level Control


The Magnetrol ECHOTEL Model 962 is a dual point switch that can be used as a level controller, or to control pumps in an auto fill or auto empty mode. The tip sensitive lower gap performs well in aerated or foamy liquids, and can measure to within 1.4" of the vessel bottom. The rigidity of the unique flow-through upper gap allows separations of up to 125" (318 cm) between the upper and lower transducer gaps.

The Magnetrol ECHOTEL 962 offers the ultimate solution to reliable dual point liquid level measurement. This advanced switch uses pulsed signal technology for superior performance in difficult process conditions, and to provide excellent immunity from sources of electrical noise interference. Extensive self-testing of the electronics and transducer make this advanced switch suitable for use in Safety Integrity Level (SIL) 2 loops.

The ECHOTEL Model 962 is equipped with advanced diagnostics that continuously check the sensor and electronics. The diagnostics also alarm for electrical noise interference from external sources.

Ultrasonic contact switches use a pair of piezoelectric crystals that are encapsulated in epoxy at the tip of the transducer for level measurement. The crystals are made of a ceramic material that vibrates at a given frequency when subjected to an applied voltage. The transmit crystal converts the applied voltage from the electronics into an ultrasonic signal. When liquid is present in the gap, the receive crystal senses the ultrasonic signal from the transmit crystal and converts it back to an electrical signal.

Miller Energy, Inc.
https://millerenergy.com
800-631-5454

Miller Energy Acquires V-F Controls of Ohio

Miller Energy, Inc. is pleased to announce the acquisition of V-F Controls
as of January 1, 2019.


V-F Controls is a leading distributor of process Instrumentation, controls and metering equipment serving Western Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Ohio. With over 150 years of combined experience, the merger of Miller Energy and V-F Controls will offer our customers the most technical customer support and application expertise in the industry, an unparalleled product portfolio, and a continued commitment to outstanding customer service.

For all inquiries and communications:

Miller Energy, Inc. (Ohio)
555 Golden Oak Parkway
Cleveland, OH 44146
Ph: (440)735-0100
Fax: (440)735-0123