Showing posts with label Metro New York. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Metro New York. Show all posts

High-Performance Non-Slam Check Valves

High-Performance Non-Slam Check Valves

The industrial sector demands reliable and efficient machinery to support complex processes. High performance non-slam check valves are integral to these industrial systems, ensuring smooth, uninterrupted operations. 


Advantages of using non-slam check valves in industrial process applications:


Swift Response Time: Non-slam check valves react quickly to flow changes. They have a short disc stroke, which means the valve disc travels a small distance from fully open to fully closed. This quick response time prevents the sudden surge or water hammer, thus protecting the pipeline systems.

Minimized Water Hammer: Water hammer occurs when fluid in motion suddenly stops or changes direction. It creates a shock wave in the pipeline, damaging pipes, joints, and other equipment. The design of non-slam check valves enables them to close quickly but gradually before reverse flow begins. This mechanism minimizes the possibility of water hammer, enhancing the lifespan and operational efficiency of the system.

Reduced Pressure Drop: Non-slam check valves have a streamlined flow path and low head loss design, allowing optimal flow with minimal resistance. This reduced pressure drop translates to more energy-efficient operations and, in turn, reduces operational costs.

Longer Equipment Lifespan: Non-slam check valves are constructed from robust and high-quality materials, ensuring a longer service life than traditional check valves. They are resistant to corrosion, erosion, and wear, which reduces the frequency of replacements and maintenance, saving time and resources in the long run.

Low Maintenance: The design of non-slam check valves, with its anti-slam feature, minimizes wear and tear on valve components. This low-maintenance aspect of the non-slam check valves means fewer operational disruptions and reduced maintenance costs.

Versatility: Non-slam check valves are suitable for various industrial applications, including chemical processing, power generation, water treatment, oil and gas processing, and more. Their adaptability across multiple industries makes them a cost-effective and reliable choice for managing process flow.

Compact Design: Non-slam check valves are often more compact than traditional check valves, making them ideal for installations where space is at a premium. The smaller footprint allows for more flexibility in system design and ease of installation.

Enhanced Process Efficiency: The quick response time, minimized water hammer, and reduced pressure drop of non-slam check valves collectively lead to a more efficient process operation. These factors ensure the smooth flow of process materials, minimize downtime and reduce operational costs.

High performance non-slam check valves are crucial in industrial process applications. Their numerous benefits, including swift response time, minimized water hammer, reduced pressure drop, and enhanced process efficiency, make them invaluable in maintaining smooth and cost-effective industrial operations.

Miller Energy, Inc.
https://millerenergy.com
800-631-5454

Vaisala Polaris™ Refractometers: Enhancing Process Efficiency and Product Quality

Vaisala Polaris™ Refractometers: Enhancing Process Efficiency and Product Quality

Industrial refractometers are pivotal in process automation, bolstering product uniformity, amplifying productivity, and curbing wastage. These tools determine a substance's refractive index, calculating the extent of light bending as it traverses a sample. This information furnishes critical data regarding a solution's composition and concentration, serving as a linchpin in several industrial operations.

These refractometers prove particularly beneficial in the food and beverage sector, enabling precise quantification of sugar content in various products such as juices and jams. They foster product consistency by ensuring uniformity in flavor and texture while fulfilling regulatory standards. Similarly, in pharmaceutical manufacturing, refractometers determine the concentration of active ingredients in medicines, which is crucial for their efficacy and safety. The pulp and paper industry and semiconductor manufacturing also leverage these devices to assess the concentration of dissolved solids at multiple production stages. Moreover, these instruments gauge the concentration of dissolved solids like salts and acids in chemical production, bolstering the production process's effectiveness.

Automating the refractive index measurement through industrial refractometers eliminates manual testing's need, cutting down on errors and augmenting process efficiency. It also helps reduce labor costs linked to manual testing. These automated refractometers can be integrated into broader process control systems, facilitating continuous monitoring and control of essential process parameters.

Vaisala, a frontrunner in creating and manufacturing environmental and industrial measurement systems, has introduced its new product, Vaisala Polaris™. This innovative product line enhances manufacturing processes, improving productivity, conserving resources and energy, and saving time across diverse industries and countless applications.

Vaisala Polaris™ leverages an optical measurement principle that coupled with the absence of moving parts, negates the need for regular maintenance. This feature positions the product as an efficient, reliable solution for businesses necessitating consistent measurement readings. The product easily synchronizes with Vaisala's Indigo520 transmitters right out of the box, ensuring a smooth setup process. Vaisala has also curated a library of over 500 concentration models to enable exact measurements of diverse dissolved solids, meeting clients' requirements.

With no risk of drift due to particles, bubbles, or color influencing the readings, Vaisala Polaris™ guarantees unmatched precision. Its long-term stability and absence of moving parts promise several years of consistent, accurate measurements. Moreover, Vaisala offers an Engineer to Order service for more extensive needs, enabling product customization to suit the specific requirements of their clients.

In summary, industrial refractometers are:
  • Indispensable tools in process automation.
  • Boosting product quality and uniformity.
  • Enhancing efficiency.
  • Minimizing waste and costs.
As automation technology progresses, these monitoring instruments' significance is poised to escalate in industrial environments. With its superior performance, Vaisala Polaris™ is a state-of-the-art technology ideally suited for your application.

Miller Energy, Inc.
800-631-5454

Industrial Valve Automation Services from Miller Energy

Industrial Valve Automation

Miller Energy, Inc. is at the forefront of delivering innovative and comprehensive industrial valve automation solutions that cater to various industries, including oil and gas, chemical, power, and water treatment. With a proven track record, Miller Energy has consistently demonstrated its ability to provide high-quality products and services that exceed customer expectations. 


State-of-the-Art Technology


Miller Energy leverages the latest advancements in valve automation technology to deliver high-performance products that withstand the most demanding industrial applications. Our engineers and technicians work to ensure that every solution offers precise engineering, unparalleled reliability, and durability.


Customized Solutions


Understanding that each industrial application is unique, we offer customized valve automation services to meet the specific requirements of every application. Our team of experts works closely with customers to develop tailored solutions that ensure seamless integration with their existing infrastructure and processes.


Exceptional Customer Service


Our commitment to exceptional customer service is unwavering. From the initial consultation to after-sales support, our team provides a seamless experience. We pride ourselves on our proactive approach to addressing customer concerns and offering timely assistance to ensure your satisfaction.


Wide Range of Products


With an extensive selection of valve automation products, Miller Energy, Inc. has the ideal solution for any industrial application. Our offerings include:


  1. Automated Ball Valves
  2. Automated Butterfly Valves
  3. Automated Control Valves
  4. Automated Knife Gate Valves
  5. Actuators (pneumatic, electric, and hydraulic)
  6. Accessories (positioners, solenoid valves, limit switches, etc.)


Quality Assurance


We understand the importance of quality assurance in the success of your operations. That's why we dedicate ourselves to ensuring that our products and services adhere to the highest industry standards. Our rigorous quality control processes guarantee you receive reliable and efficient valve automation solutions every time.


Industry Expertise


Miller Energy boasts an exceptional team of industry experts with decades of experience in valve automation. Our professionals possess the skills, knowledge, and expertise to provide unrivaled guidance and support throughout your valve automation systems' design, installation, and maintenance.


Sustainability and Environmental Responsibility


As an industry leader, we are committed to promoting sustainable practices and environmental responsibility. Our innovative products and services contribute to reduced energy consumption, lower emissions, and minimized waste, allowing your organization to operate more efficiently while reducing its environmental impact.


Miller Energy is your one-stop shop for state-of-the-art valve automation services. With a focus on innovation, customization, quality, customer satisfaction, and dedication to providing the best solutions for your industrial needs. Trust in our expertise and experience to propel your operations to new heights of success. Contact us today to discuss how we can help optimize your valve automation systems.


Miller Energy, Inc.
800-631-5454
https://millerenergy.com

Process Mass Spectrometers

Process Mass Spectrometers

Process mass spectrometers are versatile analytical instruments that accurately identify and quantify chemical compounds in a sample based on their mass-to-charge ratios. Mass spectrometers are crucial in monitoring and regulating various processes in industrial process control applications to ensure product quality, safety, and efficiency. Here, we will list applications for mass spectrometers in process control.


  1. Process monitoring and optimization: Mass spectrometers continuously monitor the concentrations of various components in a process stream, providing real-time data on the composition of raw materials, intermediates, and final products. By analyzing these data, process engineers can quickly identify deviations from the desired process conditions and take corrective actions to optimize the process, reduce waste, improve energy efficiency, and improve overall process control.
  2. Leak detection and control: Mass spectrometers can detect and quantify leaks in industries where hazardous or volatile gases are involved. They can rapidly identify the presence of specific gases and quantify their concentrations, enabling prompt corrective actions to minimize the risk of accidents, environmental damage, and product contamination.
  3. Quality control and assurance: Mass spectrometers analyze product samples at various stages of the manufacturing process to ensure that they meet specified quality standards. They can identify and quantify impurities, contaminants, or undesired by-products that may affect the final product's performance, safety, or shelf life. This information is vital for maintaining product consistency and complying with regulatory requirements.
  4. Reaction monitoring and kinetic studies: In chemical and pharmaceutical industries, mass spectrometers can study reaction kinetics and monitor the progress of chemical reactions in real time. By determining the concentrations of reactants, intermediates, and products, researchers can better understand reaction mechanisms, optimize reaction conditions, and improve the overall process efficiency.
  5. Environmental monitoring and emissions control: Mass spectrometers are employed to monitor emissions from industrial processes, ensuring that they comply with environmental regulations. They can detect and quantify trace levels of pollutants, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), greenhouse gases, or particulate matter, helping industries to reduce their environmental impact and comply with legal requirements.
  6. Catalyst evaluation and development: Catalysts are crucial in many industrial processes, and mass spectrometers can evaluate their performance by monitoring the reaction products and intermediates. This information is valuable for developing and optimizing new catalysts, ensuring that they are efficient, selective, and stable under the required operating conditions.


In summary, mass spectrometers are indispensable tools in industrial process control applications. Their ability to provide rapid, accurate, and sensitive analyses of process streams, emissions, and products makes them invaluable for monitoring, optimization, and quality control. As a result, they play a significant role in ensuring the safety, efficiency, and sustainability of various industries.



9 Reasons Why Industrial Control Valves Fail

9 Reasons Why Industrial Control Valves Fail

9 Reasons Why Industrial Control Valves Fail


1) Improper Sizing

To properly size an industrial control valve, take the following steps:
  • Determine the process flow rate, pressure drop, and fluid properties.
  • Select the type of control valve based on the process conditions and application requirements.
  • Choose a valve with the correct Cv (flow coefficient) for the desired flow rate and pressure drop.
  • Consider the operating temperature, pressure, and any special requirements (such as high-temperature, corrosive, or abrasive fluids).
  • Check that the valve meets all applicable industry standards.
Always consult a control valve manufacturer or an engineer with expertise in control valves for a more accurate and detailed evaluation.

2) Improper Installation

To ensure the proper installation of an industrial control valve, take the following steps:
  • Verify that all valve components are correct and undamaged.
  • Check that the piping and valve are correctly aligned and supported.
  • Use the proper gaskets and seals to prevent leakage.
  • Check the actuator mounting and connection to the valve body.
  • Make sure the control wiring is correct and properly connected.
  • Test the valve's operation and adjust as necessary.
  • Flush the piping system to remove any debris before installation.
  • Follow all relevant safety procedures and guidelines.
It is critical to consult with the valve manufacturer's installation manual and guidelines and have a professional trained in industrial control valve installation conduct the installation process.

3) Material Incompatibility

Material compatibility refers to the ability of a material to resist chemical attack, degradation, and corrosion from the process fluid. Material compatibility in industrial control valve installation is crucial because it ensures the valve's long-term reliability and prevents premature failure.

Ensure proper material compatibility by following these steps:
  • Identify the chemical composition of the process fluid and any potential impurities.
  • Determine the operating temperature and pressure of the fluid.
  • Select valve components made of materials compatible with the fluid and conditions.
  • Consider the effect of any potential impurities on the valve components.
  • Choose materials that have sufficient corrosion resistance to prevent degradation.
You need to consult a control valve manufacturer or a materials engineer for expert guidance on material selection for a specific application.

4) Erosion/Corrosion

Erosion and corrosion affect industrial control valves because they can lead to valve failure and reduce the valve's lifespan. Erosion occurs when fluid velocity in the valve causes physical wear on the valve components. Corrosion is the chemical degradation of the valve material due to exposure to harsh chemicals or corrosive environments.

Mitigate erosion and corrosion with the following measures:
  • Using corrosion-resistant materials such as stainless steel, Hastelloy, or titanium.
  • Applying protective coatings like nickel plating, hard-chroming, or ceramic coatings.
  • Regular inspection and maintenance to detect signs of wear and corrosion and replace parts before failure occurs.
  • Using proper fluid handling practices, such as filtration, to remove abrasive particles from the process media.
  • Installing isolation devices like piping spools, strainers, or blow-off valves to protect the valve.
These measures help ensure reliable operation and extend the life of industrial control valves.

5) Overloading

Overloading refers to a situation in which an industrial control valve is subjected to a load or stresses greater than its design capacity, causing damage or failure. Overloading occurs due to various factors, including improper sizing, incorrect application, or changes in operating conditions.

Prevent overloading with the following measures:
  • Proper sizing of the valve based on the operating conditions and fluid characteristics.
  • Use a suitable type of valve for the specific application, such as a high-pressure control valve for high-pressure systems.
  • Regularly monitor operating conditions and fluid characteristics to detect changes and adjust the valve settings accordingly.
  • Maintain the valve according to the manufacturer's instructions and replace worn or damaged parts.
  • Use a safety relief valve or bypass system to relieve excess pressure and protect the control valve.
By following these measures, industrial control valves can be protected from overloading and failure, ensuring reliable operation and system safety.

6) Excessive Wear

Excessive wear on industrial control valves can significantly impact their performance. The following are some ways excessive wear can affect the performance of control valves:
  • Reduced accuracy: Worn components can cause the valve to become misaligned or damaged, affecting its ability to control fluid flow accurately.
  • Increased leakage: Worn seals, seats, or other components can cause increased fluid leakage, affecting the overall performance of the valve.
  • Decreased flow control: Worn components can alter the flow characteristics of the valve, causing it to become less responsive or to control flow inaccurately.
  • Increased pressure drop: Excessive wear can cause an increase in the pressure drop across the valve, reducing system efficiency and increasing energy costs.
  • Increased maintenance requirements: Wear and damage to the valve components can result in increased maintenance needs, adding to operational costs and reducing reliability.
Prevent excessive wear of the control valves by regularly inspecting, maintaining, and replacing them as needed to ensure optimal performance and reliability.

7) Improper Maintenance

Improper maintenance of industrial control valves can have a significant impact on their performance, including:
  • Reduced accuracy: Neglecting to perform regular calibrations or making incorrect adjustments to the valve can lead to reduced accuracy in flow control.
  • Increased leakage: Failure to replace worn or damaged seals and gaskets can result in increased fluid leakage, affecting the valve's overall performance.
  • Decreased flow control: Improper cleaning or repairs can alter the flow characteristics of the valve, reducing its ability to control flow accurately.
  • Increased pressure drop: Neglecting to clean or replace dirty or clogged components can increase pressure drop across the valve, reducing system efficiency and inflating energy costs.
  • Increased downtime: Improper maintenance can lead to valve failure, resulting in increased downtime and decreased productivity.
It is essential to follow the manufacturer's instructions and perform regular, scheduled maintenance to ensure optimal performance and reliability of industrial control valves.

8) Process Contamination

Process contamination in industrial control valves can harm operation by clogging or eroding internal parts, causing valve malfunction or failure. It can also lead to decreased process efficiency and increased maintenance costs. Prevent process contamination by implementing the following steps:
  • Proper material selection: Using appropriate materials that are resistant to the specific process fluid and contaminants is vital.
  • Regular maintenance: Regular cleaning and replacement of internal components can help prevent a build-up of contaminants.
  • Installing filtration systems: Installing filters upstream from control valves can help remove contaminants before they reach the valve.
  • Installing protection devices: Installing protective devices, such as strainers or deflectors, can help prevent larger particles from entering the valve and causing harm.
  • Implementing best practices: Following best practices, such as avoiding sudden changes in flow rate, can help prevent process contamination and prolong valve life.
9) Aging or Fatigue Failure of Valve Components

Aging or fatigue failure of valve components can have a significant impact on industrial control valves, leading to the following issues:
  • Reduced efficiency: Worn-out or degraded components can cause control valves to operate less efficiently, leading to increased energy costs and decreased production.
  • Increased downtime: Aging or fatigued components can result in more frequent breakdowns, causing increased downtime and maintenance costs.
  • Decreased reliability: Over time, components can weaken and fail, reducing the reliability of control valves and increasing the risk of failure.
  • Leakage: Aging or fatigued components can result in leaks, causing loss of process fluid and potentially causing harm to the environment.
  • Decreased safety: Worn-out or degraded components can increase the risk of valve failure, which can have profound safety implications in some industrial processes.
It is essential to regularly inspect and maintain control valves to detect and replace aging or fatigued components to prevent these types of failures and maintain efficient, reliable, and safe operation.

Miller Energy, Inc.
800-631-5454
https://millerenergy.com

What is Refractometer Critical Angle Measurement?

What is Refractometer Critical Angle Measurement?

Vaisala refractometers use the critical angle measurement principle. A refractometer's three essential components are a light source, a prism, and an image detector. 


The light source sends rays to the prism and process interface at different angles. Rays with a steep angle partly reflect at the image detector and partially refract at the process. Low-angle rays reflect entirely on the detector. The angle from which the total reflection starts is called the critical angle. 

The CCD camera detects a bright and dark field corresponding to partly reflected and totally reflected light. The position of the borderline between the bright and the dark area correlates with the critical angle, which is a function of the refractive index and correlates with the solution's concentration.

A built-in temperature sensor measures the temperature T on the interface of the process liquid. The sensor converts the refractive index nD and temperature T into concentration units. 

Vaisala K-PATENTS refractometer can indicate different scales, for example, Brix, liquid density, or concentration by weight. The diagnostics program ensures that the measurement is reliable.

Miller Energy, Inc.
800-631-5454

Brooks Instrument GP200 Pressure-based Mass Flow Controllers (MFC): Theory of Operation


Brooks Instrument presents the theory of operation behind their pressure-based mass flow controller (P-MFC) from their GP200 series in this video. This P-MFC has a unique design approach for enhanced process performance without the limitations of today's traditional P-MFCs. A traditional P-MFC system includes:
  • An upstream pressure transducer.
  • An upstream control valve.
  • Two individual pressure transducers.
  • Laminar flow element.
The use of an upstream valve has many disadvantages. This design requires high pressure making it sub-optimal for critical low-pressure gases and low full-scale flow rate. It also means matching the two individual pressure transducers perfectly. 

Brooks Instrument designed a patented integrated differential pressure transducer, GP200 P-MFC, to address the disadvantages. The GP200 has one actual differential transducer instead of two, eliminating the need to match the two individual pressure transducers, significantly reducing measurement uncertainty, and improving accuracy, particularly for critical low vapor pressure process gases. Its downstream valve architecture will operate at much lower inlet pressures and across a broader range of pressures. The downstream valve also minimizes the bleed-down effect and ensures that the device is insensitive to dynamic outlet conditions.

The GP200 Series P-MFC features a patented architecture that overcomes the limitations of conventional P-MFCs to provide the most precise process gas delivery even when delivering low vapor pressure process gases. It includes several unique design aspects, including an integrated differential pressure sensor coupled with a downstream valve architecture enabling the most precise process gas delivery over the industry's broadest range of operating conditions.

Since GP200 Series supports a broad range of process conditions, it can be used as a drop-in replacement and upgrade for many traditional P-MFCs and thermal MFCs. It reduces the complexity and cost of ownership of the gas delivery system because it eliminates the need for components such as pressure regulators and transducers.

GP200 FEATURES

  • True differential pressure measurement
  • Lower inlet pressure operation
  • Downstream valve architecture
  • Matched transient response
  • Zero Leak-by Control Valve
  • MultiFlo™ technology offers unparalleled flexibility—one device can be programmed for thousands of different gas and flow range configurations without removing the MFC from the gas line or compromising accuracy
  • Local display indicates flow, temperature, pressure and network address
  • DeviceNet™, EtherCAT®, RS-485 L-Protocol and analog interfaces

GP200 BENEFITS

  • By removing the requirement to match and compensate two separate pressure transducers, the GP200 differential pressure technology reduces measurement uncertainty for enhanced accuracy, repeatability and drift performance.
  • Safer fab operation at lower inlet pressures is now achievable with a P-MFC due to the GP200 differential pressure sensor that is specifically optimized for low differential pressure measurement.
  • The downstream valve architecture ensures accuracy is independent of downstream pressure, enabling flow delivery into pressures as high as 1200 Torr. The fast closing valve addresses non-productive recipe wait times, or "tail effects," seen in upstream MFC valve designs that require additional time to bleed down their internal volume of gas.
  • Ultra-fast, highly repeatable ascending and descending flow stabilization time enables tighter process control in advanced high cycle Deposition and Etch processes.
  • 100X improvement in valve shut-down
  • With MultiFlo™, MFC full scale flow range can be re-scaled down typically by a factor of 3:1 with no impact on accuracy, turndown or leak by specifications, for optimum process and inventory flexibility 
  • Convenient user display and independent diagnostic/service port aids device installation, monitoring and troubleshooting
For more information about Brooks Instrument products, contact Miller Energy, Inc. Call 800-631-5454 or visit https://millerenergy.com.

Industrial Automated Ball Valves from Miller Energy

Industrial Automated Ball Valves from Miller Energy

Oil & Gas, Refining, Petrochemical, Chemical Processing, Pulp & Paper, Mining, Transportation, Food and Beverage, Pharmaceuticals, Marine, HVAC, Power, and other industries rely on Miller Energy for high-performance ball valve automation.

Miller Energy supplies automated ball valve assemblies ranging from 1/2 inch to 48 inch, providing first-rate quality, exceptional performance, and long-term reliability. Before shipping from the factory, every valve assembly is inspected and tested by the valve automation shop. 

A-T Controls valve automation center creates high quality ball valve assemblies, significantly reducing the time you need to spend on the project site. Automation professionals get extensive training, and each valve assembly, pneumatic or electric, is put through a battery of functional tests before being sent to customers. All valve assemblies go through a process of inspection and validation utilizing quality assurance documentation that is numbered and labeled. On request, we can provide you with assembly drawings, actuator size verification, and datasheets.

With access to inventory and highly skilled teams, Miller Energy delivers the customer solutions required to meet most valve and actuator needs while giving both a reasonable price and the industry's quickest turnaround. 

https://millerenergy.com
Phone: 800-631-5454

The Magnetrol-AMETEK Genesis™ Multiphase Detector


Multiphase level measurements exist throughout process industries. They are especially significant in the oil & gas and petrochemical sectors due to the value of effectively separating water and hydrocarbon.

While level instrumentation has come a long way in measuring liquids of all varieties, multiphase level measurement is many times the most significant challenge and opportunity today.

The Genesis™ Multiphase Detector from Magnetrol measures multiple phases in applications with thick and dynamic emulsion layers:
  • Vapor phase
  • Total level (e.g., hydrocarbon liquid) 
  • Top of the emulsion layer 
  • Bottom of emulsion layer (e.g., water level) 
  • Sediment 
With Magnetrol's breakthrough in TDR-based level instrumentation, continuously measuring dynamic conditions in the most challenging types of separators is now achievable.

To learn more about Genesis™ Multiphase Detector from Magnetrol contact Miller Energy, Inc.
Phone: 800-631-5454

Schubert & Salzer Sliding Gate Control Valves from Miller Energy


The sliding gate control valve from Schubert & Salzer has an innovative design that allows it to handle complicated applications requiring precise control under challenging circumstances. The sliding gate valve's actuation power is roughly 10% that of a globe valve of the same nominal size and differential pressure, even if both designs have almost the same flow rate.

The valve handles steam, liquids, and gases. Sliding gate valves outperform traditional control valves and use smaller actuators because they require reduced actuating force. They provide lower weight and reduced installation dimensions due to the space-saving wafer design, especially in nominal sizes mid-large. 

Due to the unique design, harmful cavitation zones occur 1 - 2 meters beyond the valve in the case of a sliding gate valve, placing the destructive cavitation bubbles downstream, in the pipeline's center, causing no damage.

Miller Energy, Inc.
800-631-5454

Pulse Burst Radar Level Transmitters

Pulse Burst Radar Level Transmitters

Pulse Burst Radar sends short bursts of energy to the surface of a liquid. The time it takes for a signal to be reflected off the liquid surface is measured by ultra-high-speed timing circuitry. 

Filtering out false reflections and other background noises is accomplished through sophisticated signal processing. The precise level is then calculated by taking tank height and additional configuration information into account. Because the circuitry is highly energy-efficient, no duty cycling is required, as with other radar devices. This enables the device to track rapid level changes of up to 4.5 m/minute (180"/min). 

Magnetrol uses Pulse Burst Radar for Radar level measurement rather than frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW), which is today's more common operational technology. Pulse Burst Radar operates in the time domain and does not necessitate the complex and costly processing required for FMCW. 

Pulse Burst Radar is more efficient at sorting through extraneous echoes and selecting the one reflected by the actual level because echoes are discrete and separated in time. Pulse Burst Radar also has excellent averaging characteristics, vital in applications where the return signal is affected by the factors described in "Don't Forget the 3 D's of Radar" below. 

Unlike actual pulse devices, which send a single sharp (fast rise-time) waveform of wide-band energy, Pulse Burst Radar sends out short bursts of 6 GHz or 26 GHz energy and measures the transit time of the signal reflected from the liquid surface. The following equation is used to calculate distance:

Distance = C x Transit Time/2, (where C = Speed of Light)

The level value is then calculated by taking tank height and other configuration information into account. The sensor reference point – the bottom of an NPT thread, top of a BSP thread, or face of a flange – is the exact reference point for distance and level calculations. 

Remember the 3 D's of Radar 

Three fundamental conditions influence radar applications: 

  • The process medium's dielectric; 
  • The application's distance, or measuring range; and 
  • A wide range of disturbances can weaken or distort the radar signal. 

Low dielectric media can weaken radar's return signal, reducing the effective measurement range of a device. Pulse Burst Radar provides accurate measurements even in low dielectrics. However, when the dielectric is extremely low, as with liquid gas, fuels, and solvents, or when boiling and/or flashing can occur, Guided Wave Radar (GWR) may be the better choice in radar technology. 

The distance, or measurement range, of Pulse Burst Radar, is determined by the antenna used, the dielectric constant of the medium, and the presence of signal interference. Turbulence, foam, false targets (interior tank obstructions causing false echoes), multiple reflections (reflections off the tank roof), and a frequent level change rate can all weaken, scatter, or multiply radar signals. Excessively high or extremely low liquid levels can also be problematic. 

The Processing of Signals 

Because radar exhibits interference effects similar to those seen in light, the signal processing function is critical. The quality of a device's signal processing is what distinguishes today's cutting-edge radar transmitters from the rest. 

Pulse Burst Radar extracts accurate levels from false targets and background noise through its sophisticated signal processing capabilities. Because pulse burst radar circuitry is highly energy-efficient, no duty cycling is required to achieve effective measurement. As a result, Pulse Burst Radar can track high rates of change that would be impossible to track with other loop-powered radar transmitters. Although Pulse Burst Radar has a robust false target recognition and rejection routine, proper installation significantly minimizes false target reflections. 

Antennas 

The radar signal is transmitted and received by the antenna on the transmitter. Each antenna's maximum measuring range is primarily determined by dielectric constants and the degree of turbulence. Horn antennas can measure dielectric media as low as 1.4, whereas rod antennas have a minimum dielectric of 1.7. 

Benefits 

Pulse Burst Radar measures a wide range of media accurately and reliably in a wide range of process conditions, from calm product surfaces and water-based media to turbulent surfaces and aggressive hydrocarbon media. As a non-contact device, Pulse Burst Radar is immune to the complications that can occur when a probe comes into contact with the process media, such as coating from high viscosity media or corrosive attack from aggressive chemicals. Given the cost of extended probe lengths, the greater the measuring range, the more radar proves to be the cost-effective solution. Temperatures, pressures, the presence of vapors, and air movement within a vessel's free space have little effect on the radar. Specific gravity, conductivity, and dielectric constant changes do not affect measurement accuracy. The lack of moving parts in a 100% electronic instrument translates into low maintenance costs, and, as a two-wire, loop-powered device, power requirements and installation are greatly simplified.

Miller Energy, Inc.
https://millerenergy.com

In New York Metro and Northern NJ
Phone: 800-631-5454

In Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware:
Phone: 610-363-6200

In Western Pennsylvania:
Phone: 412-257-0200

In Ohio:
Phone: 440-735-0100

Magnetic Level Indicators and Controls for Industrial Process Applications

Magnetic Level Indicators and Controls

Fluid process control operations frequently involve the storage of liquids in a vessel or tank. The continuous and accurate indication of the liquid level within the tank is an important data point for process control decision making and safety. Several tank level measurement methods and instrument types are available, each with its own set of characteristics that may be advantageous for a specific installation. 

A tank liquid level indicator's selection criteria often include: 

  • Does the process require direct or indirect measurement of level?
  • What level measurement accuracy and reliability is needed?
  • What is the tank shape, regular or irregular?
  • Are there concerns with media compatibility with measurement device materials of construction?
  • How often will maintenance or calibration be needed?
  • Is the instrument capable of operating at the process temperature and pressure for the application?
  • Does the application require local display and visibility or remote?
  • Are control signals from the level indication required? What type and transmission protocol?
  • What kind of redundancy and safety devices, such as additional switches, are needed?

Magnetically coupled liquid level indicators, or MLIs, are widely used in the process industry. They are accurate, consistent, and reliably indicate liquid level. These units are completely sealed and do not require any maintenance. MLIs also eliminate the vapor or liquid emission issues that plague sight and gauge glasses. 

Most Compelling Reasons for Using MLI's:

  • Level measurement is continuous. 
  • Operable without the use of electricity. 
  • Regardless of tank shape or profile, they provide a direct visual tank fluid level indication. 
  • They are available in wide operating temperature and pressure ranges. 
  • MLI construction is resistant to breakage.
  • A variety of materials are available to accommodate corrosive media. 
  • Externally mounted measuring indicators, switches, and transmitters do not come into contact with the process media. 
  • MLI's provide a continual operation that requires little maintenance. 
  • The level indication is viewable from a greater distance than glass sight gauges. 
  • With a single instrument, it is possible to measure large fluid level ranges.

Magnetic level indicators have a strong presence in tank liquid level measurement and should be considered a candidate for meeting those application requirements. There are numerous options for customizing the level indicator for each application.  Work with your local Sales Engineer,  a specialist in level measurement, about your application challenges and positive outcomes. 

For more information, contact your local Miller Energy, Inc. regional office:

South Plainfield, NJ Office
Serving Northern NJ, New York, and Fairfield County Connecticut
South Clinton Ave.
South Plainfield, NJ 07080
Phone: 908-755-6700
Toll Free: 800-631-5454
Fax: 908-755-0312

Exton, PA Office
Serving Southern NJ, Eastern PA, Delaware and Central and Eastern Maryland
505 Gordon Drive
Exton, PA 19341
Phone: 610-363-6200
Toll Free: 888-631-5454
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Selecting Variable Area Flow Meters for Process Flow Measurement

Variable Area Flow Meters

Many industrial processes involve the movement of fluid product components, either liquid or gaseous, through pipes. Because processing is about control, an input to the facility's management, measurement, or data logging centers will answer the query, "How much is going through that pipe?" 

In the industrial process measurement and control industry, there are several ways for quantifying flow, each with unique characteristics that may be useful under certain operating situations. All flow measuring methods are indirect because the actual measurement is of a character influenced predictably by a change in the media flow. Flow measurement is a critical component that, when paired with other fluid properties, is used to calculate the total mass of a fluid passing through the measurement site. 

The variable area meter, commonly known as a rotameter and VA meter, is a tried and true flow measuring device that operates by creating an equilibrium between an upward force created by fluid motion and a downward force, gravity. A tapering glass or metal tube encases a specifically shaped float, also known as a shaped weight, in the device. VA meters must be positioned vertically, with the media flowing upward from the bottom, so that the gravity force required for functioning is correctly aligned with the flow direction. As fluid flows upward via the precisely tapered tube, drag is created on the float enclosed within the tube, pulling it upward. As the float rises, the open space between the float and the tube wall expands, causing the fluid velocity and drag force to decrease. The flow velocity within the tube will cause the weight to climb for any given flow volume until the drag force generated by the flow reaches equilibrium with the countervailing power of gravity on the float. The tube and float are well designed, allowing for an immediate indication of flow volume.

Variable area flowmeters have the following operating characteristics: 

  • There is no need for external power or fuel for functioning. 
  • Vertical installation is required, with flow arriving at the bottom. 
  • Meters are calibrated to a given chemical and temperature. 
  • The operation is stable and has a modest pressure drop. 
  • For operation, constant gravity is required. 
  • Flow rate can be read locally using a meter or a scale inscribed on the tube. 
  • The visibility of the float through the medium is required for unit flow readings using glass tubes. 
  • For industrial flow metering equipment, accuracy is relatively low. 
  • Inexpensive upkeep, simple construction, and low comparative cost.

Brooks Instrument, a world-renowned maker of flow, pressure, and level measurement equipment, created a brief paper highlighting the parameters to consider when specifying a VA meter and how each aspect influences the unit's performance. The description is realistic and straightforward to grasp. It is suggested reading for all process stakeholders who want to improve their flow measuring skills.

For more information about variable area flow meters contact Miller Energy. Call 800-631-5454 or visit https://millerenergy.com.

Process Refractometers for Water Treatment Chemical Concentration Monitoring

Process Refractometers for Water Treatment


INTRODUCTION


Pure water treatment removes undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids, and gases from raw water. Water purification aims to produce water for a specific purpose, such as human consumption and medical or industrial use.


Polyaluminium coagulants are increasing use in potable water treatment plants, particularly for soft, colored surface waters. Polyaluminium chloride (PACl) is gradually replacing Alum (aluminum sulfate), a commonly used coagulant in water treatment plants. Alum coagulates at a limited pH range (between 5.5 and 6.5) and often requires alkali to the raw water to achieve the optimum coagulation pH. Furthermore, the alum floc produced is particularly fragile, which is vital if a coagulant is required to maximize color removal in a microfiltration-based water treatment process.


K-Patents Teflon Body Refractometer PR-23-M from Miller Energy, Inc.


APPLICATION


Water treatment by chemical precipitation is a complex process. It starts with adding flocculants, specifically, Polyaluminium Chloride (PACl) and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH). PACl is a synthetic polymer dissolved in water. It precipitates in big volumetric flocs, which absorb suspended pollutants in the raw water. The turbidity of the raw water defines Polyaluminium Chloride quantity. PACl concentration must be higher than 10 % To keep the flocculation process smooth. Polyaluminium Chloride is stable in the storage tank; however, it tends to crystallize after some time. Vaisala K-PATENTS® refractometer monitors the concentration of PACl to inform about the need for tank or pipe cleaning, thus preventing blockage caused by the PACl crystals.


NaOH regulates pH level, increases alkalinity, and neutralizes acids in the water. In alkaline water, the coagulation and flocculation processes work more effectively. Moreover, sufficient alkalinity prevents dissolving the lead from pipes and pipe fittings and reduces the corrosive effect of the water to iron pipes.


Further, particles suspended in water start to precipitate and agglomerate to form larger particles, known as flocs. The flocs are then settled at the bottom, forming sludge, and then removed from the process. After separating most of the floc, the remaining suspended particles and unsettled floc get filtered to remove water.


In the filtration phase, the water goes through the layers of anthracite, sand, and gravel. As a result, organic compounds contributing to taste and odor get removed. Other remaining particles get trapped by adhering to the sand and gravel particles.


After harmful micro-organisms get removed through filtering, it is necessary to add disinfecting chemicals to the water to inactivate any remaining pathogens and potentially harmful micro-organisms. One of the disinfecting chemicals used is Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl). When dissolved in water, this chemical releases chlorine, which is an efficient and safe disinfectant if added in a sufficient amount. Apart from sodium hypochlorite, liquid chlorine and chlorine dioxide are also choices as disinfectants.


Fluoride may also be added to the water to reduce tooth decay and prevent chronic diseases. However, fluoride in the water must not exceed recommended levels. Excessive levels of fluoride can be toxic or cause undesirable cosmetic effects such as staining of teeth.


Sodium Hypochlorite is unstable and quickly decomposes. The stability of NaOCl solution is dependent on the following factors:


  • Hypochlorite concentration
  • The temperature of the solution
  • PH value of the solution
  • The concentration of the impurities during catalyzing decomposition
  • Exposure to light


With the process refractometer, it is possible to monitor NaOCl concentration and control the disinfection conditions.


The water purification disinfection stage happens in the disinfectant basin. Then, corrosion control assures the high quality of the purified water. Finally, the pure water gets stored for further consumption.


INSTRUMENTATION AND INSTALLATION


Vaisala K-PATENTS® Teflon Body Refractometer PR-23-M provides in-line measurements of Polyaluminium Chloride and Sodium Hydroxide at the initial stage of purification, ensuring the efficient flocculation of undesired particles. In addition, through the measurement of Sodium Hypochlorite and Fluoride at the water disinfection stage, high-quality purified water at the outlet is assured.


Refractometer installations happen in three different points in a by-pass loop between each chemical tank pump outlet and the treatment point. The refractometer allows monitoring the chemicals concentration at the exit from the storage tank to the pipe treatment point.


Typical measurement ranges are:

  • PACl is ca. 10-11 %
  • NaOH is ca. 40-45 %
  • NaOCl is ca. 8-12 %

Miller Energy, Inc.
https://millerenergy.com
800-631-5454