Showing posts with label Pennsylvania. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Pennsylvania. Show all posts

Process Refractometers for Water Treatment Chemical Concentration Monitoring

Process Refractometers for Water Treatment


INTRODUCTION


Pure water treatment removes undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids, and gases from raw water. Water purification aims to produce water for a specific purpose, such as human consumption and medical or industrial use.


Polyaluminium coagulants are increasing use in potable water treatment plants, particularly for soft, colored surface waters. Polyaluminium chloride (PACl) is gradually replacing Alum (aluminum sulfate), a commonly used coagulant in water treatment plants. Alum coagulates at a limited pH range (between 5.5 and 6.5) and often requires alkali to the raw water to achieve the optimum coagulation pH. Furthermore, the alum floc produced is particularly fragile, which is vital if a coagulant is required to maximize color removal in a microfiltration-based water treatment process.


K-Patents Teflon Body Refractometer PR-23-M from Miller Energy, Inc.


APPLICATION


Water treatment by chemical precipitation is a complex process. It starts with adding flocculants, specifically, Polyaluminium Chloride (PACl) and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH). PACl is a synthetic polymer dissolved in water. It precipitates in big volumetric flocs, which absorb suspended pollutants in the raw water. The turbidity of the raw water defines Polyaluminium Chloride quantity. PACl concentration must be higher than 10 % To keep the flocculation process smooth. Polyaluminium Chloride is stable in the storage tank; however, it tends to crystallize after some time. Vaisala K-PATENTS® refractometer monitors the concentration of PACl to inform about the need for tank or pipe cleaning, thus preventing blockage caused by the PACl crystals.


NaOH regulates pH level, increases alkalinity, and neutralizes acids in the water. In alkaline water, the coagulation and flocculation processes work more effectively. Moreover, sufficient alkalinity prevents dissolving the lead from pipes and pipe fittings and reduces the corrosive effect of the water to iron pipes.


Further, particles suspended in water start to precipitate and agglomerate to form larger particles, known as flocs. The flocs are then settled at the bottom, forming sludge, and then removed from the process. After separating most of the floc, the remaining suspended particles and unsettled floc get filtered to remove water.


In the filtration phase, the water goes through the layers of anthracite, sand, and gravel. As a result, organic compounds contributing to taste and odor get removed. Other remaining particles get trapped by adhering to the sand and gravel particles.


After harmful micro-organisms get removed through filtering, it is necessary to add disinfecting chemicals to the water to inactivate any remaining pathogens and potentially harmful micro-organisms. One of the disinfecting chemicals used is Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl). When dissolved in water, this chemical releases chlorine, which is an efficient and safe disinfectant if added in a sufficient amount. Apart from sodium hypochlorite, liquid chlorine and chlorine dioxide are also choices as disinfectants.


Fluoride may also be added to the water to reduce tooth decay and prevent chronic diseases. However, fluoride in the water must not exceed recommended levels. Excessive levels of fluoride can be toxic or cause undesirable cosmetic effects such as staining of teeth.


Sodium Hypochlorite is unstable and quickly decomposes. The stability of NaOCl solution is dependent on the following factors:


  • Hypochlorite concentration
  • The temperature of the solution
  • PH value of the solution
  • The concentration of the impurities during catalyzing decomposition
  • Exposure to light


With the process refractometer, it is possible to monitor NaOCl concentration and control the disinfection conditions.


The water purification disinfection stage happens in the disinfectant basin. Then, corrosion control assures the high quality of the purified water. Finally, the pure water gets stored for further consumption.


INSTRUMENTATION AND INSTALLATION


Vaisala K-PATENTS® Teflon Body Refractometer PR-23-M provides in-line measurements of Polyaluminium Chloride and Sodium Hydroxide at the initial stage of purification, ensuring the efficient flocculation of undesired particles. In addition, through the measurement of Sodium Hypochlorite and Fluoride at the water disinfection stage, high-quality purified water at the outlet is assured.


Refractometer installations happen in three different points in a by-pass loop between each chemical tank pump outlet and the treatment point. The refractometer allows monitoring the chemicals concentration at the exit from the storage tank to the pipe treatment point.


Typical measurement ranges are:

  • PACl is ca. 10-11 %
  • NaOH is ca. 40-45 %
  • NaOCl is ca. 8-12 %

Miller Energy, Inc.
https://millerenergy.com
800-631-5454

How Does a 250:1 Turndown Improve Your Bioprocess Performance?

The Brooks Instrument SLA Series Biotech Mass Flow Controller (MFC) with a 250:1 turndown delivers critical benefits to your bioprocess. This biotech-focused MFC provides the added flexibility of a higher controllable range than a traditional MFC, enabling easy scaling and reducing the total cost of ownership by requiring fewer gas lines and mass flow controllers in the system configuration. Performance of the bioprocess also improves by reducing DO noise while fewer overall components simplify system maintenance. 

For more information about Brooks Instrument products, contact Miller Energy by calling 800-631-5454, or visit https://millerenergy.com.

How Proper Level Instrumentation Can Alleviate Foam Headaches

Proper Level Instrumentation for Foam

Foam is at times present in liquid tanks used in the chemical, manufacturing, food and beverage, life sciences, and other process industries. Because of foam's fluid nature, there is no such thing as a "one-size-fits-all" level measurement solution. It's essential to understand the foam's characteristics and understand what form of measurement is needed. The foam may develop in a tank for several reasons, such as introducing air or gas into the liquid or the activity of agitators/mixing blades. Regardless of the source, caution is required when selecting a level measurement technology to avoid potentially costly errors. 

Magnetrol, a world-leading manufacturer of level instrumentation, authored a white paper that aims to go through the challenges that foam presents and overcome them by recommending proper instrumentation.

GET THE WHITE PAPER HERE

In New York Metro and Northern NJ
Phone: 800-631-5454

In Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware:
Phone: 610-363-6200

https://millerenergy.com

The Tank Mount Series Weighing Equipment by BLH Nobel

Tank Mount Series Weighing Equipment by BLH Nobel

BLH Nobel has launched its new Tank Mount Series of weighing equipment for applications for process weighing. The new series comprises three fully standardized weight modules with off-the-shelf availability in capacities of up to 200 tons and numerous appropriate junction boxes and instruments. It is an integrated solution for accurate and repeatable weighing of materials for various applications, such as large silos, vessels, small storage containers, and clean-in-place batching processes. 

Known for its customizable, high-precision, smart weighing solutions, BLH Nobel is a well-established pioneer in process weighing. The Tank Mount Series offers a cost-effective solution for end-users as well as system integrators and OEMs, consisting of two low and one high-capacity weight modules with mV/V output: 

  • With capacities of up to 5 ton/ton, the TankMount Metric Weight Module and its imperial equivalent EconoMount Weight Module are both well suited for general industrial applications requiring retrofitting existing structures or turning hoppers into scales. Weight modules are rated IP 67 or better as standard, with optional ATEX, FM, NEMA4, OIML, and NTEP, Class III, and IIIL approved versions available. 
  • With the KDH5 Weight Module, the Tank Mount Series covers an increased capacity of up to 200 tons at an accuracy level of 0.075 percent of the Rated Performance. Its lightweight and durable mechanical architecture feature an integrated tilting guard for fast installation. The Weight Module is suitable for heavy-silo weighing applications or weight bridges with ATEX, IECEx or FM certified versions at no additional cost. Higher capacities and EN 1090-compliant versions are also available. 

BLH Nobel provides a range of appropriate junction boxes and equipment to offer full weighing solutions in a single-stop store. For example, the WIN5 weight indicator is well suited for simple applications that can benefit from its stainless steel enclosure, the high-contrast 6-digit LED display, and the working pushbuttons supporting tare weight zero settings for empty vessels. The G5 DIN Rail Mount meets advanced weighing and control equipment specifications. It is available as a DIN rail edition with an integrated monitor and functional keypad, simple navigation, and direct control at the production facility. The G5 instrument family's modular hardware supports a wide range of communication options via Ethernet, RS485, USB, Fieldbus, and analog output-with maximum versatility.

In New York Metro and Northern NJ
Phone: 800-631-5454

In Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware:
Phone: 610-363-6200

https://millerenergy.com

GT1600 Industrial Glass Tube Variable Area Flowmeter (Rotameter) for Liquids & Gases

As one of the pioneering manufacturers in variable area (VA) flow meter (rotameter) technology, Brooks Instrument has created a diverse and proven portfolio of gas flow meters, installed and used across virtually every industry.

The NEW Brooks Instrument GT1600 Series industrial design is ideal for the toughest applications. 

GT1600 Features

  • Configurable to retro-fit GT10xx, GT130x and Full-View
  • 360 degrees rotatable viewing angle
  • High quality materials for safety, in- and outdoor durability
  • 316 stainless steel frame
  • Polycarbonate safety shield
  • 316/316L dual certified stainless steel process fittings
  • Alarms for high- and low flow (optional for all flow ranges, either at time of
  • order,or as add-on in the field)
  • Flanged or threaded connections, available horizontal and vertical
  • Panel- and wall mount options
  • Easy in-situ maintenance: Clean or replace tube and float without removal from
  • the process piping
  • Adjust the scale to compensate for process variation
  • Optional integral needle valve

For more information about the Brooks Instrument GT1600 contact Miller Energy, Inc. Call them at 800-631-5454 or visit their website at https://millerenergy.com.

The Thermo Scientific™ Prima PRO Online Mass Spectrometer & Process Gas Analyzer

The Thermo Scientific™ Prima PRO online mass spectrometer & process gas analyzer meets many challenging process applications in the petrochemical, iron, and steel, and biotechnology industries. The Prima PRO online mass spectrometer delivers faster, more complete, and highly reliable lab-quality online gas composition analysis. It features a rugged, fault-tolerant design that ensures availability that exceeds 99.7%, a simplified maintenance procedure, and an auto-tune capability to facilitate ongoing operation and enhance productivity.

For more information about the Thermo Scientific™ Prima PRO in Metro New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Northern Ohio, contact Miller Energy, Inc.  Call them at 800-631-5454 or visit their website at https://millerenergy.com.

Magnetrol Eclipse® Model 706 High Performance Guided Wave Radar Level Transmitter

Magnetrol Model 706

The Eclipse® Model 706 High-Performance Transmitter is a loop-powered, 24 VDC level transmitter that is based upon the proven and accepted technology of Guided Wave Radar (GWR). Encompassing several significant engineering accomplishments, this leading-edge transmitter provides measurement performance well beyond many of the more traditional technologies.

Utilizing patented “diode switching” technology, along with the most comprehensive sensing probe offering on the market, this single transmitter addresses a wide variety of applications ranging from very light hydrocarbons to water-based media.


The innovative angled, dual compartment enclosure is now a common sight in the industry. This enclosure, first brought to the industry by Magnetrol® in 1998, is angled to maximize ease of wiring, configuration, and viewing of the versatile graphic LCD.

All Model 706 transmitters have an interchangeable probe that offers enhanced reliability as certified for use in critical SIL 2 hardware safety loops. With the use of a unique adapter, the model 706 transmitter can even operate with older Model 705 probes.

For more information about Magnetrol products contact Miller Energy, Inc. Call them at 800-631-5454 or visit their website at https://millerenergy.com.

Understanding the Operation of Mass Flow Controllers (MFCs)

The basic construction of mass flow controllers (MFCs) consists of four main components. A body, a thermal sensor, a printed circuit board, and a magnetic control valve. As gas enters the flow body, a laminar flow element or restrictor diverts a precise portion of the gas to pass through the thermal sensor. The thermal sensor is the heart of the mass flow controller and consists of a bypass tube fitted with a heater element and two temperature sensors. As gas enters the sensor bypass tube, the upstream and downstream temperature sensors measure the temperature differential between gas entering the bypass tube and exiting it. 

When choosing an MFC supplier, consider whether the manufacturer provides zero stability specifications, also known as sensor stability, which indicates the device's ability to maintain accuracy over time. Good sensor stability ensures the MFC delivers highly accurate and consistent results with less frequent recalibration or replacements needed. A stable, precise sensor guarantees regular, precise process control. As the thermal sensor measures the change in the flow temperature,  it sends a signal to the circuit board, which interprets the data into flow output and compares it to the setpoint received from the user setpoint signal. If the setpoint, or required value, is higher than the measured value or flow output, the controller will open the control valve, letting more flow through. Suppose the setpoint is lower than the flow output. In that case, the control valve will close, decreasing flow, caused when a coil inside the magnetic control valve sends an electrical current around a valve stem, which moves the valve plunger by thousands of an inch. The circuit board is the device's brain, so pay close attention to the electronics and firmware architecture when evaluating an MFC. The MFC should have the ability to support advanced alarms and diagnostics to monitor and correct issues before the overall process is negatively affected. Check to see what built-in alarms and diagnostics are available. 

Brooks Instrument devices support flow output and additional alerts like flow totalization, valve drive, flow obstruction, and calibration. All Brooks devices are tested as complete systems to ensure robust and accurate operation and maintain calibration to international standards. 

In Pennsylvania and Ohio, contact Miller Energy to learn which Brooks Instrument solution is right for your process.

In Eastern Pennsylvania:
Phone: 610-363-6200

In Western Pennsylvania:
Phone: 412-257-0200

In Ohio:
Phone: 440-735-0100

https://millerenergy.com

Critical Ethylene Level and Flow Application Brochure

Critical Ethylene Level and Flow Applications

In ethylene plants, balancing environment, health, and safety is essential while maximizing productivity.

Level and flow instrumentation will assist in preventing loss of primary containment and maintaining a safe environment inside of the tank. That’s critical, because incident consequences are significant, with the direct cost of a work-related death of $1M and indirect costs approximately 4 times greater. In addition, there is the lasting damage to your brand reputation and the compromised safety of the local community. Instrumentation can also assist in maximizing productivity, including interface type measurement in some of the harshest environments.

This brochure contains a wide spectrum of Magnetrol® and Orion Instruments® level and flow products that conform to the latest safety standards, including SIL requirements, to assist in the most critical applications in ethylene plants.


For more information about Magnetrol and Orion Instruments products contact Miller Energy, Inc. Call them at 800-631-5454 or visit their website at https://millerenergy.com.

The Vaisala K-PATENTS PR-43A Sanitary Process Refractometers for Food, Beverage & Dairy Industries

Vaisala K-PATENTS® Sanitary Process Refractometers PR-43-AC for hygienic installations in small pipe line sizes of 2.5 inch and smaller; PR-43-AP for hygienic installations in large pipes, tanks, cookers, crystallizers and kettles and for higher temperatures up to 150°C (300 °F); and the PR-43-APT for flush mounting installations in cookers, cooling crystallizers and other vessels that have scrapers or mixers.

Sanitary Refractometer Applications:

Extraction, evaporation, brewing, distilling, sugar dissolving, blending, filling. Alcohol, rum, whiskey, brandy, vodka, molasses, liquors, cider, alcoholic beverages, pre-mixed liquors. Beer and malt beverages, wort, cut beer, root beer. Juices, blended vegetable and fruit juices and nectars, still drinks, vegetable and juice concentrates, iced tea and coffee, instant coffee and tea. Soft drinks, energy and sport drinks, beverage base. Wines, grape must.

Sanitary Refractometer 3A Approval:

The Sanitary refractometer PR-43-A is Sanitary 3-A approved to meet the highest hygiene requirements of food production. The 3-A Symbol assures that the Sanitary Refractometer

PR-43-A conforms to 3-A Sanitary Standard Number 46-04 for Refractometers and Energy-Absorbing Optical Sensors for Milk and Milk Products and it has passed the independent Third Party Verification inspection for 3-A Symbol authorization.

For more information about Vaisala K-PATENTS products in Metro New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Northern Ohio contact Miller Energy, Inc. Call them at 800-631-5454 or visit their web site at https://millerenergy.com.

Crane Duo-Chek® Valves from Miller Energy, Inc.

Crane Duo-Chek® high performance non-slam check valves are available in the sizes, pressure classes and configurations required to meet the most demanding of applications. 

The Crane Duo-Chek® wafer valve design is generally stronger, lighter, smaller, more efficient, and less expensive than conventional swing check valves. Its design meets API 594, width is approximately one fourth the face to face dimension and is 15% to 20% the total weight, on most popular sizes, making them less expensive than a swing check valve. It is much easier to install between standard gaskets and line flanges. The savings compound during installation due to ease in handling and only one set of flange studs is required. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to install, and also to maintain.

For more information about Duo-Chek®  valves, contact Miller Energy, Inc. Call 800-631-5454 or visit  https://millerenergy.com.


Liquid Interface Level Measurement Using Guided Wave Radar, Magnetic Level Gauges, Float & Displacer, Thermal Dispersion, and RF Capacitance

Liquid Interface Level Measurement

The need for interface measurement arises whenever immiscible liquids - those incapable of mixing - reside within the same vessel. The lighter material rises to the top and the heavier material settles at the bottom. In oil production, for example, water or steam is used to extract oil from a well. Well fluids then route to production separators where they settle into their primary constituent parts as a water-hydrocarbon interface. Water may also be used as a transport medium or a cleaning agent and forms an interface with an allied material which is later extracted.

Knowing the position of a process interface is necessary for maintaining product quality and operations efficiency. The interface is measured and controlled by precision level switches and transmitters. Though at least 20 different types of liquid level measurement devices are in service today, only a very few are suitable for accurate and reliable interface measurement. Grouped by their operating technologies, these include Buoyancy (Floats and Displacers), RF Capacitance, Thermal Dispersion, Radar, and Redundant Technologies (those combining two measurement technologies in one instrument).

Interface Level Measurement
The five leading interface measurement technologies in use today are Guided Wave Radar, Magnetic Level Gauges, Float & Displacer, Thermal Dispersion, and RF Capacitance. These five leading interface measurement technologies in use today are discussed in the technical bulletin titled "Liquid Interface Level Measurement" and produced by Magnetrol International.


For more information on any industrial level control application, contact Miller Energy. Call them at 800-631-5454 or visit their website at https://millerenergy.com.

Industrial Valve Automation from Miller Energy, Inc.

Miller Energy's valve automation philosophy is to design, build, and install automated valve packages that improve process efficiency and reliability. We deliver customized actuation products and services that suit your criteria and specifications. Our automated valve packages can be designed to perform basic service, or for specific unique applications where challenging or severe application criteria exist. Miller Energy has relationships with the most highly regarded brands of industrial valves, actuators and controls. Beyond that, Miller's team of valve experts have years of experience and can help you find solutions to fit your specific requirement. From specification, to start-up, through preventive maintenance, Miller Energy is there with you throughout the lifetime of your automated valve.

Miller Energy Valve Automation

  • Quarter-turn Ball, Butterfly and Plug Valves
  • Linear Gate, Knifegate, and Globe Valves
  • Pneumatic Actuators
  • Electric Actuators
  • Engineered Brackets and Couplings
  • Valve Positioners
  • Limit Switches
  • Solenoid Valves
  • Valve Communication Packages

For more information, contact Miller Energy, Inc. Call them at 800-631-5454 of visit their website at https://millerenergy.com.

White Paper: Improving Health and Safety with Magnetic Level Indicators in Ammonia Refrigeration Applications

Magnetic Level Indicators in Ammonia Refrigeration
Anhydrous ammonia is a versatile commodity in many manufacturing applications, including cold storage and food processing facilities. In comparison, anhydrous ammonia raises a range of safety and environmental issues to be addressed when determining some form of process instrumentation. Traditionally, visual level indication of anhydrous ammonia was obtained using sight glasses. This white paper discusses key areas in the ammonia refrigeration process where magnetic level indicators (MLIs) can provide a safer , more reliable method of level measurement over conventional technologies.

The goal of this document is to highlight the benefits of MLIs that will lead to improved personnel safety , reduced risk of fugitive emissions, reduced environmental impact, and reduced maintenance costs in large commercial and industrial ammonia refrigeration systems.


Contact Miller Energy for any industrial level control application. Call  800-631-5454, or visit their website at https://millerenergy.com.

The McCrometer FPI Mag Full Profile Insertion Flow Meter


The McCrometer FPI Mag is ideal for capital or maintenance projects, retrofits and sites never before metered. The unique combination of accuracy, ease of installation, and total cost savings make the FPI Mag the perfect choice for a wide range of Municipal and Industrial Applications.

The FPI Mag has no moving parts and a single-piece design. The multi-electrode water flow sensor contains nothing to wear or break and is generally immune to clogging by sand, grit or other debris. The FPI Mag is available with forward-flow only or bi-directional measurement for line sizes from 4 to 138 inches.

The sensor body is made from heavy-duty 316 stainless steel for maximum structural integrity and is hermetically sealed and protected by NSF certified 3M fusion-bonded epoxy coating.

The FPI Mag is rated for Hazardous Locations:
- Class 1, Division 2, Groups A-D, T5
- Class 2, Zone 2, Groups A-D, T5

For more information on the FPI Mag contact Miller Energy, Inc. Call them at 800-631-5454 or visit their site at https://millerenergy.com.


Understanding Safety Integrity Level (SIL)

Safety integrity level (SIL)

Safety integrity level (SIL)
Nothing is more important than safety to the process control industries. High temperature and pressure, flammable and toxic materials are just some of the issues faced on a daily basis. Reliability is a key component of safety; the more reliable the device, the safer the critical process.

Safety integrity level (SIL) is defined as "relative level of risk-reduction provided by a safety function, or to specify a target level of risk reduction." SIL ratings are applied in accordance of frequency and the severity of the hazard. These ratings determine the level of performance required to achieve and maintain safety, as well as the probability of failure.

There are four SIL levels; SIL 1, SIL 2, SIL 3, and SIL 4. These SIL levels relate to the risk of failure - a higher the SIL rating poses a higher risk of failure, in turn requiring stricter safety requirements.

Magnetrol, a leading manufacturer of innovative level, flow and volume controls for the process industries has put together this excellent technical note to help you better understand Safety Integrity Level.



Miller Energy, Inc.
https://millerenergy.com
800-631-5454

White Paper: Using Digital MFC Capabilities to Improve Bioprocessing Results Miller Energy

Biomanufacturing relies on numerous pieces of equipment working in concert to produce life-altering therapeutics. The equipment relies on various subsystems to achieve the desired results. In a bioreactor, one of the most essential subsystems provides gas management for the gases necessary for cellular metabolism. At the heart of the gas management subsystem is the thermal mass flow controller (MFC), a component that precisely measures and controls the delivery of gases to the bioprocess.

This white paper, courtesy of Brooks Instrument, discusses mass flow controller data capabilities in relation to a broader biomanufacturing capital asset management.


For more information on Brooks Instrument products, contact Miller Energy. Call them at 800-631-5454 or visit their website at https://millerenergy.com.

Programming the UE One Series Hybrid Transmitter-Switches


The United Electric Controls One Series electronic pressure and temperature transmitter-switches are designed to provide transmitter, switch and gauge functions all-in-one rugged enclosure that can withstand the rigors of harsh and hazardous environments. Available in Type 4X enclosures approved for intrinsic safety, flameproof and non-incendive area classifications, these hybrid transmitter-switches have a fully adjustable set point and deadband and 0.1% repeatability. This video provides a quick tutorial on how to set up the One Series.

For more information, contact Miller Energy. Call them at 800-631-5454 or visit their web site at https://millerenergy.com.

Don’t Let Valves Come Between You and Accurate Flow Measurement

Getting valves and flow meters to work together is sometimes a challenging task within industrial water and wastewater applications. Valves tend to create the kind of irregular media flow patterns in pipelines that make it a real challenge to achieve accurate flow measurement of liquids, gas or steam. That’s why many types of popular liquid flow meters require straight pipe runs.

Unfortunately, the nature of the process or the kind of space required for long straight runs of pipe is often an impossible luxury in many of today’s plants.



How Valves Create Flow Disturbances


Depending on a pipeline’s flowing media (liquid, gas or steam), the process pressures and the process temperatures, the fluid flow dynamics within a pipeline can vary widely. The ideal pipeline configuration for the accurate measurement of flow with nearly all of the industry’s most popular flow sensors is a straight pipe with consistent media conditions Many processes by their very nature, however, tend to be unstable and create irregular flows within a pipeline all by themselves.

Plant layouts, especially expansions and retrofits, also tend to create less than optimum pipeline conditions for the measurement of flow. The addition of valves, pumps, elbows and other equipment into the pipeline create media swirling and other effects that can result in irregular flow profiles that will reduce flow meter measurement accuracy and repeatability. That’s why many flow meter manufacturers recommend anywhere from 5 to 10 or even 20 to 30 pipe diameters of straight pipe run upstream and downstream of the flow meter—depending on the flow sensing technology in use.

Flow Straightening and Conditioning


While the simple solution is to know your flow meter and its straight pipe run requirements to achieve accurate, consistent measurement, this is often easier said than done. Today’s complex and ever changing industrial processes, the need to treat and conserve water, crowded plant environments where real estate is precious, regulatory requirements and the team involved in running any plant can mean that your valve or elbow inevitably intrudes on your flow meter’s turf. Many times the first sign of the problem is when the flow meter isn’t reading the flow accurately. By then changing the pipeline layout or moving other devices such as valves is impractical and too costly.

Flow straighteners and conditioners offer an answer to this problem. There are several different types of flow straighteners and conditioners, including perforated plates, tube bundles, etc. The purpose of all flow straighteners and conditioners is to eliminate swirl and provide a stable velocity flow profile. Of course the ideal time to think about flow conditioning is before the flow meter is installed so that the flow conditioner and flow meter can be calibrated to work together. One drawback to add-on flow conditioners and straighteners is that they increase head loss.

Flow Meters With Built-In Conditioning


Another solution to consider is the installation of a flow meter with built-in flow conditioning. This type of solution offers the advantages of installation flexibility, reduced equipment, simplified installation with potentially fewer pipe penetrations and reduced maintenance requirements. Several manufacturers offer flow meters that include built-in flow conditioning. For example, McCrometer’s V-Cone Flow Meter is a differential-pressure sensing meter with integral flow conditioning that operates within liquids, gas or steam.

McCrometer’s V-Cone Flow Meter
McCrometer’s V-Cone Flow Meter
The V-Cone’s DP flow sensor conditions fluid flow to provide a stable flow profile that increases accuracy. The flow sensor‘s design features a centrally-located cone inside a tube. The cone interacts with the fluid flow and reshapes the velocity profile to create a lower pressure region immediately downstream. The pressure difference, which is exhibited between the static line pressure and the low pressure created downstream of the cone, can be measured via two pressure sensing taps. One tap is placed slightly upstream of the cone and the other is located in the downstream face of the cone itself. The pressure difference can then be incorporated into a derivation of the Bernoulli equation to determine the fluid flow rate.

The cone’s central position in the line optimizes the velocity of the liquid flow at the point of measurement. It forms very short vortices as the flow passes the cone. These short vortices create a low amplitude, high frequency signal for excellent signal stability. The result is a highly stable flow profile for measurement accuracy to +0.5% with +0.1% repeatability over a wide flow range of 10:1. All of this is possible with a minimal straight pipe run of 0 to 3 diameters upstream and 0 to 1 diameters downstream from the flow meter depending upon placement from valves and other control devices.

Conclusions


Getting accurate flow measurement with valves, pumps, and other equipment in relatively close proximity is difficult, but achievable. The ideal way to achieve accurate and repeatable flow measurement within industrial water and wastewater applications is to recognize in advance the straight pipe run requirements of the flow sensing technology in use at your plant. When the process, the plant layout or other factors lead to swirl in your pipeline that affects meter performance, then consider either flow conditioners or a flow meter with built-in flow conditioning.

Attribution: Original white paper written by Jim Panek, Product Manager, Water & Wastewater, McCrometer, Inc.

Control Valve Glossary

Reprinted with permission of Cashco.
Linear Control Valve Design
Click for larger view.
Actuator: An actuator is a pneumatic hydraulic, or electrically powered device which supplies force and motion to open or close a valve.

Airset: A regulator which is used to control the supply pressure to the valve actuator and its auxiliaries.

Angle valve: A valve design in which one port is collinear with the valve stem or actuator, and the other port is at a right angle to the valve stem.

Anti-cavitation trim: See “trim, anti-cavitation”. Anti-noise trim: See “trim, anti-noise”.

Bellows stem seal: A thin wall, convoluted, flexible component that makes a seal between the stem and bonnet or body and allows stem motion while maintaining a hermetic seal.

Benchset: The calibration of the actuator spring range of a control valve, to account for the in service process forces.

Body: The main pressure boundary of the valve that also provides the pipe connecting ends, the fluid flow passageway, and supports the seating surfaces and the valve closure member.

Bonnet: The portion of the valve that contains the packing box and stem seal and may guide the stem. It may also provide the principal opening to the body cavity for assembly of internal parts or be an integral part of the valve body. It may also provide for the attachment of the actuator to the valve body. Typical bonnets are bolted, threaded, welded to, pressure-sealed, or integral with the body.

Butterfly valve: A valve with a circular body and a rotary motion disk closure member, pivotally supported by its shaft.

Rotary Control Valve Design
Click for larger view.
Cage: A part of a valve trim that surrounds the closure member and may provide flowcharacterization and/ or a seating surface. It may also provide stability, guiding, balance, and alignment, and facilitate assembly of other parts of the valve trim.

Capacity: The rate of flow through a valve under stated conditions.

Cavitation: A two-stage phenomenon of liquid flow. The first stage is the formation of vapor bubbles
within liquid system due to static pressure of fluid at vena contracta falling below the fluid vapor pressure; the second stage is the collapse or implosion of these cavities back into an all-liquid state as the fluid decelerates and static pressure is recovered.

Characteristic, flow: An indefinite term, see “characteristic, inherent flow” and “characteristic, installed flow.”

Characteristic, equal percentage: An inherent flow characteristic which, for equal increments of rated travel, will ideally give equal percentage changes of the existing flow coefficient (cv).

Characteristic, inherent: The relationship between the flow coefficient (cv) and the closure member travel as it is moved from the closed position to rated travel with constant pressure drop across the valve.

Characteristic, linear: An inherent flow characteristic that can be represented by a straight line on a rectangular plot of flow coefficient (cv) versus rated travel. Therefore, equal increments of travel provide equal increments of flow coefficient (cv).

Characteristic, quick opening: An inherent flow characteristic in which a maximum flow coefficient is achieved with minimal closure member travel.

Characterized cam: A component in a valve positioner used to relate the closure member position to the control signal.

Characterized trim: Control valve trim that provides predefined flow characteristics.

Closure member: The movable part of the valve that is positioned in the flow path to modify the rate of flow through the valve.

Closure member configurations (plug):
  • Characterized: Closure member with contoured surface, such as the “vee plug,” to provide various flow characteristics.
  • Cylindrical: A cylindrical closure member with a flow passage through it (or a partial cylinder).
  • Eccentric: Closure member face is not concentric with the stem centerline and moves into seat when closing.
  • Eccentric spherical disk: Disk is spherical segment, not concentric with the disk stem.
  • Linear: A closure member that moves in a line perpendicular to the seating plane.
  • Rotary: A closure member which is rotated into or away from a seat to modulate flow.
Coefficient, flow: A constant (cv) related to the geometry of a valve, for a given valve travel, that can be used to predict flow rate.

Control valve: A valve which controls the flow rate or flow direction in a fluid system. The final control element, through which a fluid passes, that adjusts the flow passage as directed by a signal from a cont- roller to modify the flow rate.

Dual sealing valve: A valve that uses a resilient seating material for the primary seal and a metal-to-metal seat for a secondary seal.

End connection: The configuration provided to make a joint with the pipe.
  • End connections, flanged: Valve body with end connections incorporating flanges that mate with corresponding flanges on the piping.
  • End connections, split clamp: Valve end connections of various proprietary designs using split clamps to apply gasket or mating surface loading.
  • End connections, threaded: Valve end connections incorporating threads, either male or female.
  • End connections, welded: Valve end connections which have been prepared for welding to the line pipe or other fittings. May be butt weld (bw), or socket weld (sw).
Erosion resistant trim: Valve trim, that has been designed with special surface materials or geometry to resist the erosive effects of the controlled fluid flow.

Extension bonnet: A bonnet with a packing box that is extended above the bonnet joint of the valve body so as to maintain the temperature of the packing above or below the temperature of the process fluid. The length of the extension bonnet is dependent upon the difference between the fluid temperature and the packing design temperature limit as well as upon the valve body design.

Face to face dimension: The dimension from the face of the inlet opening to the face of the outlet opening of a valve or fitting.

Facing, flange: The finish on the end connection that mates with gasket surfaces.

Failure mode: The position to which the valve closure member moves when the actuating energy source fails.
  • Fail-closed: A condition wherein the valve closure member moves to a closed position when the actuating energy source fails.
  • Fail-in place: A condition wherein the valve closure member stays in its last position when the actuat- ing energy source fails.
  • Fail-open: A condition wherein the valve closure member moves to an open position when the actuat- ing energy source fails.
  • Fail-safe: A characteristic of a particular valve and its actuator, which upon loss of actuating energy supply, will cause a valve closure member to fully close, fully open or remain in fixed last position. Fail-safe action may involve the use of auxiliary controls connected to the actuator.
Flangeless control valve: A valve without integral line flanges, which is installed by bolting between companion flanges, with a set of bolts, or studs, generally extending through the companion flanges.

Guides, closure component: The means by which the closure is aligned with the seat and held stable throughout its travel. The guide is held rigidly in the body, bonnet, and/or bottom plate.

Hand jack: A manual override device, using a lever, to stroke a valve or to limit its travel.

Handwheel: A mechanical manual override device, using a rotary wheel, to stroke a valve or to limit its travel.

Hard facing: A material applied to valve internals to resist fluid erosion and/or to reduce the chance of galling between moving parts, particularly at high temperatures.

Hard plating: A thin metal deposit, sometimes electroplated, used to induce surface hardening. Hard plating is many orders of magnitude thinner than hard facing.

Hysteresis: The maximum difference in output value for any single input value during a calibration cycle, excluding errors due to dead band.

Integral seat: A flow control orifice and seat that is an integral part of the body or cage.

Jacketed valves: A valve body cast with a double wall or provided with a double wall by welding material around the body so as to form a passage for a heating or cooling medium. Also refers to valves which are enclosed in split metal jackets having internal heat passageways or electric heaters. Also referred to as “steam jacketed” or “vacuum jacketed.” in a vacuum jacketed valve, a vacuum is created in the space between the body and secondary outer wall to reduce the transfer of heat by convection from the atmosphere to the internal process fluid, usually cryogenic.

Lantern ring: A rigid spacer assembled in the packing box with packing normally above and below it and designed to allow lubrication of the packing or access for a leak-off connection.

Lapping-in: A process of mating contact surfaces by grinding and/or polishing.

Leakage, class: Classifications established by ansi b16.104 to categorize seat leakage tolerances for different sizes of control valve trim.

Leakage, seat: The quantity of fluid passing through a valve when the valve is in the fully closed position with pressure differential and temperature as specified.

Leak-off gland: A packing box with packing above and below the lantern ring so as to provide a collection point for fluid leaking past the primary seal (lower packing).

Lined valve body: A valve body in which a coating or liner has been applied to internal surfaces for cor- rosion/erosion protection or for flow shut off.

Liner, slip-in: An annular shaped liner which makes a slight interference fit with the body bore and which may be readily forced into position through the body end. May be plain or reinforced. Applies to butterfly valves.

Liquid pressure recovery factor: The ratio (fl) of the valve flow coefficient (cv) based on the pressure drop at the vena contracta, to the usual valve flow coefficient (cv) which is based on the overall pressure drop across the valve in non-vaporizing liquid service. These coefficients compare with the orifice metering coefficients of discharge for vena contracta taps and pipe taps, respectively. See ansi/isa-s75.01 “control valve sizing equations.”

Lubricator isolating valve: A manually operated valve used to isolate the packing lubricator assembly from the packing box.

Lubricator packing box: A packing arrangement consisting of a lantern ring with packing rings above and below with provision to lubricate the packing.

Mechanical limit stop: A mechanical device to limit the valve stem travel.

Mounting position: The location and orientation of an actuator or auxiliary component relative to the control valve. This can apply to the control valve itself relative to the piping.

Multiple orifice: A style of valve trim where the flow passes through a multiple of orifices in parallel or in series.

Nominal size: A numerical designation of size which is common to all components in a piping system other than components designated by outside diameters or by thread size. It is a convenient round number for reference purposes and is only loosely related to manufacturing dimensions. Iso uses initials dn as an abbreviation for the term with the letters dn followed by a numerical value designating size. All equipment of the same nominal size and nominal pressure rating shall have the same mating dimensions appropriate to the type of end connections.

Packing: A sealing system consisting of deformable material contained in a packing box which usually has an adjustable compression means to obtain or maintain an effective seal.

Packing box: The chamber, in the bonnet, surrounding the stem and containing packing and other stem sealing parts.

Packing flange: A device that transfers the deforming mechanical load to the packing follower.

Packing follower: A part which transfers the deforming mechanical load to the packing from the packing flange or nut.

Packing lubricator assembly: A device for injection of lubricant/sealer into a lubricator packing box.

Pinch or clamp valve: A valve consisting of a flexible elastomeric tubular member connected to two rigid flow path ends whereby modulation and/or shut off of flow is accomplished by squeezing the flexible member into eventual tight sealing contact.

Plug: A term frequently used to refer to the closure member.

Plug valve: A rotary motion valve with a closure member that may be cylindrical or conical. Port: The flow control orifice of a control valve.

Port guiding: A valve closure member with wings or a skirt fitting into the seat ring bore.

Positioner: A position controller, which is mechanically connected to a moving part of a final control element or its actuator, and automatically adjusts its output pressure to the actuator in order to maintain a desired position that bears a predetermined relationship to the input signal. The positioner can be used to modify the action of the valve (reversing positioner), extend the stroke/controller.

Positioner, double acting: A positioner with two outputs, suited to a double acting actuator.

Positioner, single acting: A positioner with one output, suited to a spring opposed actuator.

Position switch: A position switch is a pneumatic, hydraulic or electrical device which is linked to the valve stem to detect a single, preset valve stem position.

Position transmitter: The position transmitter is a device that is mechanically connected to the valve stem or shaft and generates and transmits a pneumatic or electrical signal representing the valve position.

Post guiding: A design using guide bushing or bushings fitted into the bonnet or body to guide the plug’s post.

Pressure energized seal: A seal energized by differential pressure.

Rangeability inherent: The ratio of the largest flow coefficient (cv) to the smallest flow coefficient (cv) within which the deviation from the specified inherent flow characteristic does not exceed the stated limits.

Rated travel: The amount of movement of the valve closure member from the closed position to the rated full open position.

Seat: The area of contact between the closure component and its mating surface which establishes valve shut-off.

Seat ring: A part of the valve body assembly that provides a seating surface for the closure member and may provide part of the flow control orifice.

Shaft: The mechanical member used to support a rotary closure member.

Spring rate: The force change per unit change in length of a spring.

Stem connector: The device which connects the actuator stem to the valve stem. Stem guide: A guide bushing closely fitted to the valve stem and aligned with the seat.

Three-way valve: A valve with three end connections, used for mixing or diverting flow.

Throttling: The action of a control valve to regulate fluid flow by varying the position of the closure member. This service generates a variable pressure drop.

Transducer: A device that is actuated by power from one system and supplies power in another form to a second system.

Travel: The movement of the closure member from the closed position to an intermediate or rated full open position.

Travel indicator: A pointer and scale used to externally show the position of the closure member; typically in terms of units of opening percent of travel or degrees of rotation.

Trim: The internal components of a valve which modulate the flow of the controlled fluid.
  • Trim, anti-cavitation: A combination of control valve trim that by its geometry reduces the tendency of the controlled liquid to cavitate.
  • Trim, anti-noise: A combination of control valve trim that by its geometry reduces the noise generated by fluid flowing through the valve.
  • Trim, balanced: Control valve trim designed to minimize the net static and dynamic fluid flow forces acting on the trim.
  • Trim, reduced: Control valve trim which has a flow area smaller than the full flow area for that valve. Trim, soft seated: Valve trim with an elastomeric, plastic or other readily deformable material used
  • either in the closure component or seat ring to provide tight shutoff with minimal actuator forces.
Unbalance, dynamic: The net force/torque produced on the valve stem/shaft by fluid pressure acting on the closure member and stem/shaft at stated travel and flowing conditions.

Unbalance, static: The net force produced on the valve stem by the fluid pressure acting on the closure member and stem with the fluid at rest and with stated pressure conditions.

Valve: A device used for the control of fluid flow, consisting of a fluid retaining assembly, one or more ports between end openings and a movable closure member which opens, restricts or closes the port(s).
  • Balve, ball: A valve with a rotary motion closure member consisting of a full ball or a segmented ball.
  • Valve, diaphragm type: A valve with a flexible linear motion closure member which is moved into the
  • fluid flow passageway of the body to modify the rate of flow through the valve by the actuator.
  • Valve, floating ball: A valve with a full ball positioned within the valve that contacts either of two seat rings and is free to move toward the seat ring opposite the pressure source when in the closed position to effect tight shutoff.
  • Valve, globe: A valve with a linear motion closure member, one or more ports and a body distinguished by a globular shaped cavity around the port region.
Vena contracta: The location in a flow stream where fluid velocity is at its maximum and fluid static pressure and the cross-sectional area are at their minimum. In a control valve, the vena contracta normally occurs just downstream of the actual physical restriction.

Yoke: The structure which rigidly connects the actuator power unit to the valve.

Glossary courtesy of Cashco, Inc. For more information about Cashco products, contact Miller Energy, Inc. Call them at 800-631-5454 or visit their web site at https://millerenergy.com.